Best Free Tools For IT Professionals And Sys Admin Engineers

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NB: Hover mouse over the text for a description:

3uTools - (An All In One Tool For iOS Devices)

Adobe Acrobat Reader DC - (Free PDF Reader)
AOMEI Backupper Standard
Audacity (Wave Table Music Editor)
Balena Etcher
Brutus Password Cracker (For Penetration Testing Only)
Electronics Tools - Arduino IDE
Electronics Tools - Cider (SPICE Simulator)
Electronics Tools - DS View - Dream Source Lab
Electronics Tools - EZ-Builder (Now ARC)
Electronics Tools - Fosc-21 PC Oscilloscope
Electronics Tools - Fosc-21 PC Oscilloscope (PDF Manual)
Electronics Tools - Fritzing
Electronics Tools - NXLog Community Edition
Electronics Tools - NXLog Enterprise Edition V5
Electronics Tools - Kicad EDA
Electronics Tools - LTspice (SPICE Simulator)
Electronics Tools - NanoVNA-QT
Electronics Tools - NanoVNA Saver
Electronics Tools - Open Hantek
Electronics Tools - Pulse View (Sigrok)
Electronics Tools - Saleae Logic
Electronics Tools - Ngspice (SPICE Simulator)
Electronics Tools - Xgpro
Electronics Tools - XTronic (Website: For All Things Electronic)
FileOpen Plug-in
FileZilla (Client)
FileZilla (Server)
Hard Disk Sentinel - Windows
Hard Disk Sentinel - Linux Edition
Jabra Direct (Pair Dongles To Devices)
Keyboard Tester (Online)
Lazesoft (Data recovery)
Lazesoft (Disk Image & Clone)
Lazesoft (Recovery Suite - Password recovery)
Lazesoft (Windows Recovery)
Little Snitch (MacOS)
Logitech - G Hub
Logitech - Logi Tune
Luxafor - Flag & Bluetooth - USB Teams Lights
Mouse Without Borders
NirSoft - AppCrashView
NirSoft - BlueScreenView
NirSoft - NK2Edit
NirSoft - WhatIsHang
NirSoft - WinCrashReport
Nitro - (Free PDF Reader & Editer )
Notepad ++
Omni - DiskSweeper
Omni - Presence
Omni - Web
PDFsam Basic (Split, Merge, Mix, Rotate & extract PDFs)
Photopea (Online)
PowerShell ISE and its Script Browser and Script Analyzer Add-Ons
Process Explorer
Process Hacker
Process Monitor
Pro Photo Tools (Microsoft)
Radio Tools - 01 - Airspy SDR Sharp (Main Site)
Radio Tools - 02 - Airspy SDR Sharp - Manual Installation
Radio Tools - 03 - Airspy SDR Sharp - Quick Start Guide
Radio Tools - 04 - Airspy SDR Sharp - SDR Sharp Guide
Radio Tools - 05 - SDRPlay - RSP Spectrum Analyser
Radio Tools - 06 - SDRPlay - SDRPlay API DLL
Radio Tools - 07 - SDRPlay - The Older Forum
Radio Tools - 08 - Sim Smith Chart
Radio Tools - 09 - NanoVNA-QT
Radio Tools - 10 - NanoVNA Saver
Revo Uninstaller
RSAT Tools for Windows 10
Ryzen DRAM Calculator Tool (Helpful With XMP)
Search Everting AKA Everting
SD Card Formatter (Type 1)
SMART Reporter Lite (For HDDs)
SpeedCrunch (High Precision Scientific Calculator)
System Monitor (Sysmon)
Sysinternals Suite (Tools From)
Team Viewer
TestDisk (Data Recovery)
TransMac (Tools To Repair Apple Devices On Windows)
UEFI Tool v0.28.0 (Download From Major Geeks)
UEFI Tool (Download From Github)
Unifying Software AKA Logitech Unifying Receivers (LURs)
USB Webserver (Apache - MySQL - PHP - phpMyAdmin)
VB-CABLE Virtual Audio Cable / Device
Wavepad (Wave Table Music Editor)
Xodo (Free PDF Editor)
Zadig - Installs Generic USB Drivers For Bespoke Devices


NB: Hover mouse over the text for a description:

Avast Antivirus

AVG Antivirus
Bit Defender - Page 01
Bit Defender - Page 02


Email - Checker - Blacklist (Realtime Blacklist, DNSBL, RBL) (01)
Email - Checker - Domain Blacklist
Email - Checker - Header Analyzer
Email - Checker - HTML Code To Email For Testing (For Devs)
Email - Checker - Server Test
Email - Checker - Tutorial - How To Copy The Email Header From An Email.
Email - Checker - Verifier (Realtime Blacklist, DNSBL, RBL) (02)
Email - Checker - Verifier (Realtime Blacklist, DNSBL, RBL) (03)


Cisco Packet Tracer
Emupedia (Online)
Learn Powershell In A Month Of Lunches
Windows 93 (Online)


Google Meet's (Free With A Free Google Account)
GoToMeeting's (Free 14 Day Trial)
Teams (Free With A Free Microsoft Account)
Viber (Free With A Free Viber Account)
Zoom (Free With A Free Zoom Account)


OBS Studio - (Live Streaming, Video & Screen Recording)
XSplit - VCam - (Blur Background Without Green Screen.)


DropBox (2 GB For Free - Free With A Free DropBox Account)
Google Drive (15 GB For Free - Free With A Free Google Account)
MEGA (15 GB For Free - Free With A Free MEGA Account)
OneDrive (5 GB For Free - Free With A Free Microsoft Account)
Zoho Docs (5 GB For Free - Free With A Free Zoho Account)

Rclone (The Thired Part Tool, Mentioned above)


Google Earth Pro
Sentinel Hub Playground
Zoom Earth
World Imagery Wayback
ZZ - YT - OSINT At Home #9 - (Bendobrown)


Microsoft - Analyzer - Analyze The Wireless Network Report
Microsoft - Analyzer - Remote Connectivity Analyzer
Microsoft - Anti Spam Message Headers
Microsoft - Attack Simulator In ATP (Online)
Microsoft - Azure - Join (Enroll) Apple Mac To Azure Active Directory (AD)
Microsoft - Office 365 - Licensing Diagnostic Tool
Microsoft - Office 365 - Uninstall Office From A PC Or Laptop
Microsoft - PowerShell - Installing Various Versions
Microsoft - Robocopy (Administration Commands)
Microsoft - Support - Main Page - Sign In To Deal With Warranty Issues
Microsoft - Support - Devices Page - Sign In To Deal With Warranty Issues
Microsoft - Support - Support And Recovery Assistantt Tool (SARA Tool)
Microsoft - Surface - Diagnostic Toolkit
Microsoft - Surface - Warranty Information
Microsoft - Windows 10 Store Apps Uninstaller (Power Shell / Win Forms)
Microsoft - Windows 10 Update Assistant


Advanced IP Scanner
Angry IP Scanner
Convert Base-10 To IP
Convert HEX To RGB Online (Site 01)
Convert HEX To RGB Online (Site 02)
Convert HEX To RGB Online (Site 03)
DNS Checker (AKA)
IDN (Native to Punycode) Conversion (Convert Unicode to ASCII)
IDN (Punycode to Native) Conversion (Convert Unicode to ASCII)
IP Address Location (Online)
IPerf (Or) IPerf3 (Network Performance Online)
Is It Down Right Now? (Website Status Checker)
Message Analyzer (Microsoft)
Netwrix Account Lockout Examiner (Windows AD)
Nmap (And) Zenmap
Ping (Online)
Paessler SNMP Tester
Real-Time NetFlow Analyzer
Server - Kiwi Syslog Server
Server - SolarWinds SFTP/SCP
Server - SolarWinds TFTP
Sublime Text
Traceroute (Online)
Whois Search (Online)


Network Mapping (Definition 01) :

Network mapping is the study of the physical connectivity
of networks e.g. the Internet. Network mapping discovers the
devices on the network and their connectivity. It is not to be
confused with network discovery or network enumerating
which discovers devices on the network and their
characteristics such as (operating system, open ports,
listening network services, etc.). The field of automated
network mapping has taken on greater importance as
networks become more dynamic and complex in nature.

Network Mapping (Definition 02) :

A large scale global map of every wireless access point's unique ID
(including yours) which is freely available and constantly updated,
for anyone to use (for legitimate purposes) or to abuse. These maps
are not created with the knowledge or consent of individuals,
companies, home uses, or private individuals.

Network Mapping And War Driving :

Below are some example sites, where you can try to locate
networks and open wireless network (WIFI) connections and such
for other individuals networks and devices etc (For moor infromation see below)
Open WIFIMap
G-MoN (Play Store)
Using G-MoN (WarDriving - Field Test - Site Survey) for Wi-Fi 2G 3G UMTS 4G LTE 5G NR
Mozilla Stumbler AKA Mozilla Location Service (MLS)
Infrapedia Global Internet Infrastructure Map
Internet Exchange Map provides resources for WiFi network mapping,
they claim to respect the privacy of anyone who requests
their network and personal information be removed from
from the database. To have records of your
access point(s) removed from theirdatabase send an email
to: Additionally, ensure you include
the BSSID / MAC in the removal requests. You will also
need to append the tag "
_nomap" or "_optout" to your SSID to
stop other websites tracking your location.

C Cleaner
Forens IT - DefProf (Data & Settings From Default Win Profile To Another)
Forens IT - Profile Wizard (Migrate User Profile To New Domain Account)
Forens IT - Transwiz (User Profile Transfer Wizard)
Hiren's Boot Disk (Original Version)
Hiren's Boot Disk PE (Windows 10 Version)
Magical Jelly Bean
Microsoft Badapp (Original Version) (DOES ANYONE HAVE A LINK, PLEASE?)
Ultimate Boot CD
Why So slow
Who Crashed


Android - AOSP (Android On Mobile Devices - Open Source)
Android - x86 - (Run Android On PC Or Laptop)
ArcaOS - (OS/2 Based Operating System)
Chromium - (The OS, Not The Web Browser From Google)
DOS - Free-DOS
Friend OS (Online Browser Based OS Experanic)
Linux - Alpine
Linux - CentOS
Linux - Debian
Linux - DSL
Linux - Mint
Linux - OpenWrt
Linux - Pop! OS
Linux - Qubes OS
Linux - RedHat
Linux - Sugar On A Stick (SoaS)
Linux - Ubuntu Desktop
Linux - Ubuntu Server
OS/2 - (Warp 4)
React OS
Unix - FreeBSD
Unix - NetBSD
Unix - NomadBSD
Unix - OpenBSD
Unix - PC-BSD AKA TrueOS


Android - LineageOS
Linux - JingOS
Linux - Manjaro
Linux - Mint:
Linux - Plasma Mobile
Linux - PostMarketOS
Linux - Ubuntu
Linux - Ubuntu Touch


Accord.NET (.NET Audio And Image Processing Libraries)
Algolia - Search (Build AI Powered Search Engines)
Algolia - Recommend (Build AI Powered recommendation Engine)
Apache Mahout (Distributed Framework For Distributed Framework Data)
DeepFaceLab (Face Swapping In Videos And Images)
EbSynth (Convert Video Footage To Motion Paintings)
Faceswap (Face Swapping In Videos And Images)
GPT-Neo (Generates Texts From A Prompts)
IBM Watson (Answers Questions Asked In Natural Language)
OpenNN (Open Source Neural Networks Library)
Scikit Learn (Tools For Predictive Data Analysis)
Tay (Chat bot) (Decommissioned)
TensorFlow (Create Machine Learning Models)
Torch (Scientific Computing Framework For LuaJIT)
Yanderifier (For Making Deepfake Videos )
Zo (Chat bot) (Decommissioned)


Secure Email:


Secure Messenger:


Web Browsers (More Privacy Focused):

Tor Browser
Opera (Has A Free Builtin VPN)
Startpage (Search Engine)
Startpage (Chrome Extension)
Duck Duck Go
Brave Browser
Firefox Browser
Iridium Browser
Epic Privacy Browser
GNU IceCat Browser

Secure Operating System (OS):

Linux - Qubes OS
Linux - Tails (A Portable OS - Run From USB etc)
/e/ Foundation (Smart Phone OS)

Secure Products:

Purism - Librem 5 - Linux - Smart Phones
Purism - Librem 5 - Warrant Canary
Pine64 - Linux - Smart Phones
Pine64 - Linux - Laptops
BraX2 Privacy Phone (De-Googled Android Smart Phones)
Nexus (Series Of Smart Phones) (De-Googled Android Versions)
Frame Work Laptop (Secure, Repairable & Upgradable)
System 76 Devices (Open Source, Secure, Repairable & Upgradable)
Apricorn Aegis Secure Key 3XN (Encrypted USB Stick)
Online User Manual for the Apricorn Aegis Secure Key 3XN
Download User Manual for the Apricorn Aegis Secure Key 3XN
Download Apricorn End User Agreement for the Aegis Secure Key 3XN
Faraday Bag (Block Signals To & From Your Device)
Mic-Lock (Microphone Blocker) (For 3.5 mm Jacks)
Mic-Lock (Microphone Blocker) (For Lightning Connector)
Mic-Lock (Microphone Blocker) (USB-C Connector)
O.MG (Hak5) Penetration Testing Equpiment (Red Team)

Encryption Tools:

7-zip (Encrypt Individual & Batchs Of Files)
AES Crypt (Easiest To Use Encryption Tool)
CipherShed (Encrypt Internal & External Drives, USB, CD, DVD etc)
DiskCryptor (Encrypt Internal & External Drives, USB, CD, DVD etc)
LUKS (For Linux) (Click Link & Scroll Down To Installing Tools)
VeraCryptr (Encrypt Internal & External Drives)
TruPax (Encrypt Files & Folders Up To 1TB)

Information Regrding - Encryption - Secure Products:

Warrant Canary (What Is It & Why Should You Care)
Electronic Frontier Foundation (NPO For Digital Rights)
Do VPNs Hide My Browsing History? (From
What The Zuck! (By Rob Braxman)
E State Of Degooglisation (/e/ Foundation)
Coder's Lagoon (Bad Peggy & TruPax)
Encrypt Files And Folders With TruPax 9
Migrating From TrueCrypt To BitLocker

PORTABLE APPLICATIONS :, allows you to Keep your work devices
and personal devices separate. You can enjoy many of the same apps
that are installed on your home or work device (Be it Andriod, Apple,
Linux and Windows etc) but from a USB flash drive. Imagine having
the same applications (or similar ones) that are on your mobile device,
running from a USB flash drive.

The benefit being (Especially with Windows) that this system will
generally bypass the Windows security settings, allowing you to run
programs and make changes without the need for administrator privileges.

Free & Flexible:

# No registration required
# No adware, spyware, or malware
# OSI Certified Open Source Software
# Every device you use, will now hve the apps you nee
# Your bookmarks and settings
# Edit your documents, photos and more on any device

I do not receive any remuneration or incentive from Portable Apps,
to advertise their product. I can tell you though from my own
personal experience, that Portable Apps has been a real lifesaver.
When I have needed to make changes on someone else's device for
them or they needed to run an application, that could be installed on
the device as they did not have admin rights. I was able to install a
portable version of that application e.g. Blender, GIMP, Firefox,
Chrome, PuTTY, Audacity, and many others including apps for IT,
Business, Multi Media, Games, etc. I really feel more people should
use Portable Apps (especially ICT people) that's why I am so keen to
promote Portable Apps.

Visit for more information.


Always Up-to-date
You don't have to wait and watch for apps to install and update, Ninite's bots will do that for you.

What Ninite will do for you:

# Start working as soon as you run it
# Not bother you with any choices or options
# Install apps in their default location
# Say no to toolbars or extra junk
# Install 64-bit apps on 64-bit machines
# Install apps in your PC's language or one you choose
# Do all its work in the background
# Install the latest stable version of an app
# Skip up-to-date apps
# Skip any reboot requests from installers
# Use your proxy settings from Internet Explorer
# Download apps from each publisher's official site
# Verify digital signatures or hashes before running anything
# Work best if you turn off any web filters or firewalls
# Save you a lot of time!

If you would like to Suggest An App then, please click here and scroll down a little.

Visit for more information.


What is USBWebserver?
USBWebserver is a combination of popular webserver software:
Apache, MySQL, PHP and phpMyAdmin.
With USBWebserver it is possible to develop and show your
PHP websites everywhere and anytime. The main advantage of
USBWebserver is that you can use it from USB or a regular CD.

USBWebserver is perfect for:
Demonstrating an offline version of your website
Develop PHP websites anywhere and anytime
No need for expensive hosting
Working at multiple locations on the projects
A good test before putting your website online
And many more


1) Where do I need to put the files?
You need to put your files in the root directory.
You can reach the website by http://localhost:8080/.
2) How do I chmod a file?
You don't need to chmod files with USBWebserver.
3) Where can I find the settings files?
All the settings files are placed in the settings directory.
You need to restart USBWebserver after changing the settings.
4) What are the settings for phpMyAdmin?
Username is 'root' and the password 'usbw'.

Download USBWebserver Below:
LINK = Click Here

Download USBWebserver Manual Below:
LINK = Click Here


01 - Recuva (All File Types)
02 - EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard (WIndows Version)
03 - EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard (Apple Mac Version)
04 - Puran File Recovery (NTFS + FAT12/16/32)
05 - FreeUndelete ()
06 - Zero Assumption Recovery (ZAR) (All Image Files)
07 - Disk Drill (WIndiows Version)
08 - Disk Drill (Apple Mac Version)
09 - SoftPerfect File Recovery
10 - Glarysoft File Recovery Free
11 - Wise Data Recovery
12 - Restoration
13 - iCare Data Recovery Free
14 - Windows File Recovery
15 - UndeleteMyFiles Pro
16 - CD Recovery Toolbox


Crystal Disk Info
Hard Disk Sentinel - Windows
Hard Disk Sentinel - Linux Edition
HD Tune
Open Hardware Monitor
Ryzen DRAM Calculator Tool (Helpful With XMP)
SMARTReporter Lite (For HDDs)
WD - 01 - Data Lifeguard Diagnostic For Windows
WD - 02 - Dashboard Utility Available
Roylong Bottom's Old PC Benchmark Collection


Coverity Scan
Down Detector (Checke If You favorite Services Are Down)
Have I Been Pwned (Check Email & Phone Data Breach)
HTTP Headers
Is It Down Right Now? (Website Status Checker)
MyWOT (Web Of Trust)
Norton Safeweb
Report A Suspicious Website (Reports To The NCSC)
Scam Adviser
Semrush (Audit, Ranking Data, Keywords)
Seobility (All In One SEO Software And Tools - Main Page)
Seobility (Type / Past Your URL Hear)
Software Informer
Sonar Qube
SSL Trust (Website Safety & Security Check)
The SafeSurf Internet Rating Standard
Transparency Report (A Google Service)
Trust Pilot
URL Encode (And) Decode
URL Void
WHOIS Search
Website Informer


Adblock Plus (Google Chrome Extension)
Bookmark Manager Speed Dial | Papaly (Google Chrome Extension)
Earth View From Google Earth (Google Chrome Extension)
EPUBReader (Google Chrome Extension)
FoxClocks (Google Chrome Extension)
Full Page Screen Capture (Google Chrome Extension)
Grammarly (Free & Spelling And Grammar) (Google Chrome Extension)
Honey (Online Shopping Discounts) (Google Chrome Extension)
Microsoft Teams Screen Sharing (Google Chrome Extension)
Pushbullet (Google Chrome Extension)
Startpage (Chrome Extension)
The Great Suspender (Google Chrome Extension)
The QR Code Extension (Google Chrome Extension)


8 Bit Museum - Retro Chip Tester (RCT)
Amateur Radio - 73 Magazine AKA Amateur Radio Today
Amateur Radio - American Radio Relay League (ARRL)
Amateur Radio - American Radio On ISS (ARISS)
Amateur Radio - Radio Society Of Great Britain (Internet Archive) (Wayback Machine)
Basic Logic Gates And Functions (Electronics)
Bootrec - Guide For Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1, 10
BT Openreach Cable Theft And Iidentification Booklet V4
Calculator - - A Variety Of Calculators (Online) - 01
Calculator - - A Variety Of Calculators (Online) - 02
Calculator - Computing - CRC Calculator (Online)
Calculator - Computing - Hex Calculator - 01- (Online)
Calculator - Computing - Hex Calculator - 02 - (Online)
Calculator - Electrical - db Power Voltage Amplifier Ratios (Online)
Calculator - Electrical - Single Layer Coil Winding
Calculator - Electrical - L/C/F And Single Layer Coil Winding
Coding - DEMO - Pouë (Demo Programming Community)
Coding - HTML - W3 Schools
Coding - HTML - A Quick And Simple Online Color Picker
Coding - HTML - Best Online Color Picker
Coding - HTML - Best Online Color Picker - Gradient
Coding - HTML - CMYK Calculator - Color Picker
Coding - HTML - Color Names
Coding - Java Script - Java Script Fundamentals
Coding - Java Script - Objects: The Basics
Coding - Java Script - Data Types
Coding - Java Script - Object Properties Configuration
Commodore64 - High Voltage SID Collection (A Collection Of C64 Music)
Commodore64 - SID Play (SID Music Player For Mac)
Commodore64 - SID Players (SID Music Players For Various Platforms)
Commodore64 - The Commodore 64 Scene Database (CSDB)
Converter - A Converter - One Unit To Another (Online)
Converter - Computer - KB - MB - GB - TB - PB - ETC (Online)
Converter - CHMOD (For UNIX Systems) Calculator (Online)
Converter - ASCII To: HEX - DEC - BIN (Online)
Converter - Frequency Conversion (Online)
Converter - Frequency Wavelength Calculator (Online)
Converter - Wavelength To Colour Calculator (Online) - 01
Converter - Wavelength To Colour Calculator (Online) - 02
Converter - Wavelength To RGB Converter (Online)
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - Tube Offline
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - Youtubemp4
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - (Good For MP3/MP4)
Download from YouTube And Other Sites -
Download from YouTube And Other Sites -
Download from YouTube And Other Sites -
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - 10Downloader
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - Downvids
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - Downloader
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - FileConvertO
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - KeepVid
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - SaveFrom
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - SaveFrom Party
Download from YouTube And Other Sites -
Google - Google Accounts Sign In
Google - Google Books Ngram Viewer
Google - Google Images
Google - Google Passwords Manager
Google - Google Scholar
Hash Calculator (Online)
How Many Millions of Lines of Code Does It Take?
How To Build An IR Sensor (MaxEmbedded)
How To Revive Your Old IPod Classic With An SSD
Intellectual Property Office (IPO)
Key Performance Counters And Their Thresholds For Windows Server - (Broadband Information Site)
Offline Database - Kiwix (Setup A Raspberry Pi Hotspot)
Lenovo ThinkPad USB-C Dock Station Gen 2 (Drivers & Firmware)
Logitech - BRIO Ultra HD Pro Business
Magical Jelly Bean (Retrieves Your Product Key (CD Key)
Manuals - Manuals Lib
Manuals - Motherboard Manuals Data & More
Manuals - How To Find Product Manuals And Documentation
Manuals - Acer
Manuals - Apple - Current Generation
Manuals - Apple - Older Generation
Manuals - Asus
Manuals - Dell
Manuals - Hewlett Packard (HP)
Manuals - Jabra 75 Headset - Rev B
Manuals - Jabra 75 Headset - Rev E
Manuals - Jabra 75 How To Manually Reset To Default Settings
Manuals - Jabra 75 How To Update Firmware With Jabra Direct
Manuals - Jabra 75 Support Pages
Manuals - Jabra 750 Speak
Manuals - Sennheiser - D10 Series Wierless DECT
Manuals - Sennheiser - D20 Series Wierless DECT
Manuals - Sennheiser - D10 D20 And SD Battery Does Not Charge Correctly
Manuals - Sennheiser - FAQ – USB 800 USB
Manuals - Windows 10 - (Users Guide)
Meraki - Dashboared - My Meraki Com
Meraki - Dashboared - Password Reset
Microsoft - 365 A Feature Matrix (Licences Types Comprehensive)
Microsoft - 365 Office / Business Premium (Licences Types)
Microsoft - 365 Office / Exchange Online Limits
Microsoft - 365 Office / Find The Right Solution For You
Microsoft - ATP - Release Quarantined Messages And Files
Microsoft - Azure - AD - Revok Token
Microsoft - Azure - Enroll In Azure AD (Error 8018000a)
Microsoft - Azure - Status
Microsoft - Community (Ask The Microsoft Community)
Microsoft - Edge - Export And Import Bookmarks
Microsoft - Excel - Automatically Number Rows
Microsoft - Fix Windows Registry Guide For: Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1, 10
Microsoft - IE 11 & Edge TLS "Can’t Connect Securely To Page"
Microsoft - OneDrive - Share Files And Folders
Microsoft - OneDrive - Synchronization - Differences In Type
Microsoft - SharePoint - Share Files Or Folders
Microsoft - Shared Mailboxes, Use,Configure & Synchronization Issues
Microsoft - Start Windows 10 In Safe Mode
Microsoft - Microsoft Teams - Screen Share In Teams
Microsoft - Receive Remote Assistance Support From Microsoft
Microsoft - Portal - Azure Management Portal
Microsoft - Portal - Microsoft 365 Defender
Microsoft - Portal - Microsoft Portals (A List Of All Microsoft’s Portals)
Microsoft - Portal - Partner Portal / Partner Centre -
Microsoft - Portal -
Microsoft - Portal - Quarantine Page
Microsoft - Windows Update Troubleshooter
Network - Countries By IPv4 Address Allocation

Network - Infrapedia Global Internet Infrastructure Map
Network - Internet Exchange Map
Network -
Network -
Network - United Kingdom ASN Summary
Network - Website Informer
NHS Mail - Email - Archiving Guidance And FAQs For Exchange Online
NHS Mail - Email - Inbox Rules
NHS Mail - Email - Send Secure Email Guide (Including To Patients)
NHS Mail - Email - Support Articles
NHS Mail - IP Whitelisting
NHS Mail - Mobile Device Support Guide
NHS Mail - Teams - How To Set Up Meetings
NHS Mail - Teams - Local Administrator FAQs
NHS Mail - Teams - Sign In To Temas Online And Application
nRF24 Series RF System on Chip
Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press)
Online - Graphing Calculator
Online - Graphing Calculator (Example)
Online - Virtual Graph Paper - 01
Online - Virtual Graph Paper - 02
Owl Labs - Meeting Owl Pro User Guides
Poly / Polycom (Video Conferencing Test IP Address ETC)
Prime95 - Free Mersenne Prime Search Software
RAID Levels
Rotten WIFI
Security - 711 Million Onliner Spambot Dump (Blog)
Security - Have I Been Pwned (Check Email & Phone Data Breach)
Security - Is It Down Right Now? (Website Status Checker)
Security - FileOpen Plug-in
Security - Password Generator - 01
Security - Password Generator - 02
Security - Password Generator - 03
Security - Password Strength Test - 01
Security - Password Strength Test - 02
Security - Password Strength Test - 03
Security - Report A Suspicious Website (Reports To The NCSC)
Security - Secure Printing - Canon - MF8580Cdw Only
Sinclair - Dilwyn Jones Sinclair QL Pages
Sinclair - QL Preservation Project + The Distribution
Sinclair - Sinclair ZX Spectrum (SPIN)
Stackry (Order Goods That Do Not Normally Ship Outside The US)
SolarWinds - N-Central - Mac Agent - How To Cleanup/Reinstall SolarWinds
SolarWinds - N-Central - Take Control Agent - How To Clean Reinstall)
TalkTalk - Routers - Enabling TeamViewer
Templates - MS Word - Create A Professional Manual
The Ancient Graffiti Project
The Battery Guy
TheOldNet.Com (90's Internet Browsing - Great For Retro Devices)
TheTrueSize.Com (Mercator Projection Showing Ture Size Of Countries) - C Panale Login Page (
UK - Electricity Supply Emergency Code (ESEC) (INFO)
UK - Electricity Supply Emergency Code (ESEC) (PDF)
Upverter - Modular Design (PCB, Schematics, AR, 3D preview)
Warranty Checker - Acer
Warranty Checker - Apple
Warranty Checker - Asus
Warranty Checker - Dell
Warranty Checker - Hewlett Packard (HP)
Warranty Checker - International Business Machines (IBM) - USA
Warranty Checker - International Business Machines (IBM) - International
Warranty Checker - Jabra
Warranty Checker - Lenovo (IBM Lenovo) / Legend
Warranty Checker - Microsoft - Surface
Warranty Checker - Toshiba - Link - 01
Warranty Checker - Toshiba - Link - 02 - (Takes A Moment To Load)
Unifying Software AKA Logitech Unifying Receivers (LURs)
Website Informer
WiGLE - Wirless Network Mapping
Win World (Library Of Operating System To Download (Mostly Windows)
Woardpress - Block Editor
Woardpress - Common WordPress Errors
Woardpress - FAQ Troubleshooting
Woardpress - WordPress Support
Z Library
Zoom Meeting (Without The App)


BlueStacks - (Run Android / Google Apps In BlueStacks)
Cisco Packet Tracer - (Simulator Entire Networks And More)
Emupedia (Online)
GNS3 - (Run Router / Switch IOS And More)
Logic Gate Simulator (Online)
Virtual Oscilloscope (Online)
Spectrum Analyzer (Online)
SPICE Simulator - SPICE (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - 5Spice (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - AIM-Spice (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - Alon (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - Cider (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - ICAP/4Windows (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - Kicad EDA (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - LTspice (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - Ngspice (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - PSpice / OrCAD (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - SIMetrix SPICE (Original) (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - SIMetrix (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - SIMPLIS (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - SPICE OPUS (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - Tina Pro (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - TopSpice (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Simulator - xSPICE (PCB Design & Test)
SPICE Stuff (SSS Website For All Things SPICE Related)
XTronic Website (Simulator Page: For Electronics Simulators)

EMULATORS (Online - In Your Web Browser) :

EmuOS - (This Is One Of The Best, Lots Of Games & Apps)
Windows 93 - (This Is One Of The Best, Very Funny)
TheOldNet.Com (90's Internet Browsing - Great For Retro Devices)
Amiga Workbench Simulator
Atari ST
Windows 95
Windows 3.1 with CD-ROM
Windows 3.1
Windows 1.0
Macintosh System 7

EMULATORS (Offline - Download And Install) :

Amiga (WinUAE)
Amstrad CPC (Arnold CPC)
Amstrad CPC (Arnold v1.7.6)
Commodore 64 (VICE)
Sinclair ZX Spectrum (SPIN)


Boot Camp
Gnome Boxes
KVM (KVM hypervisor)
Parallels (Run Windows On Mac, Without Rebooting)
Proxmox VE
QEMU (Quick Emulator)
Red Hat Virtualization
Virtual Box
Virt Manager (Virtual Machine Manager)
VM Monitor (Solarwinds)
VMware Fusion For Mac
VMware Workstation Player
Virtualization Manager


USB Types – 01
Image Credit: /u/luke_in_the_sky

What is the difference between Micro A and Micro B – Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: Troy_2808 (A DigiKey Employee)

USB Types – 02
Image Credit:

Image Credit: Anthony Matabaro


ethernet cable straight through vs crossover tia eia 568a vs 56b -Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: Madilyn Bulson

ethernet cable straight through vs crossover tia eia 568a vs 56b -Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: Madilyn Bulson

Network Cabling – Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: Stephan Fuchs?

Network Cabling – Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: Ing. Lele

Network Cabling – Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: - RJ11 To DB9

Network Cabling – Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: Tara Molina - BNC Connector

Network Cabling – Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: - Coax Connector

Network Cabling – Anthony Matabaro
Image Credit: Michael Krahe - Micro Ribbon 36 PIN (Male)


1U VS 2U - What Does The "U" Refer To?
The "U" in any server description is short for "RU", which stands for
Rack Unit. This is the standardized designation for the form factor
of the server.
Rack UnitsHeight (in)Height (cm)
1U1.75″4.4 cm
2U3.5″8.9 cm
3U5.25″13.3 cm
4U7″17.78 cm
All rackmount servers are 19" in width.


DANGEROUS AMPS – Matchstick Men Image – PNG – 01
Image Credit: Unknow

Dangerous Amperage
AC50Hz ~ 60Hz
1 mABarely noticeable
16 mAMaximum amps before you can not let go
20 mAParalysis of respiratory muscles
100 mAVentricular fibrillation
2 AmpsCardiac standstill and organ damage
DCConstant Current
15 ~ 88 mAMaximum amps before you can not let go
300 ~ 500 mAVentricular fibrillation
"It's the volts that jolts, but the amps that kills."


RAIDRedundant Array Of Independent Disks
RAID (No RAID)If your device only has one HDD / SSD, then you
can not use RAID.

If downtime and data loss are not a big concern,
then no RAID is fine.
RAID 0Trade off.

If data loss is not an issue but performance is
essential then RADI 0 is suitable.
RAID 1High uptime & increased performance of backups.

An inexpensive way to add data redundancy and
or improve read speeds.
RAID 2RAID 2 is considered obsolete.

RAID 2 is a technique that stripes data at the bit
level using a Hamming code to detect errors.
Because the error correction codes in today's
hard disk drives use Hamming code, RAID 2 is
now considered obsolete.
RAID 3RAID 3 works as RAID 0 does

RAID 3 uses byte level stripping, it also uses an
additional disk in the array. It is used to store
checksums and it supports a special processor
in parity codes calculating, this has lead to some
people terming it “the parity disk”.
RAID 4RAID 4 is a RAID configuration that uses a
dedicated parity disk and block level
striping across multiple disks. Because
data is striped in RAID 4, the records can
be read from any disk.
RAID 5 / 6Good for Web servers with a requirement for high
read speeds or very large storage arrays as a
single object. RADI 5 / 6 will perform very poorly
when it comes to writing speeds, slower
than RAID 1.
RAID 7RAID 7 is a trademarked RAID level owned by the
now defunct Storage Computer Corp. ... RAID 7 is
based on RAID 3 and RAID 4, but adds caching.
The commercial implementation incorporates
proprietary disk array hardware with a real-time
embedded operating system to control disk drive
access and data flow to host interfaces.
RAID 8Unable to locate any information on RAID 8
RAID 9Unable to locate any information on RAID 9
RAID 10Best Balanced Option.

Generally considered a good all around option
for providing additional read and write speed
and additional redundancy.


IP Address (ping)Name (nslookup)Purpose's DNS resolver,
hides your DNS requests. 3's public DNS service.'s public DNS service. DNS resolver that
blocks access to malware
infected websites. free, recursive, anycast
DNS provides end users
With security protection,
high performance and
privacy. Conferencing (VC) Test the IP Stack
on a local host


Port NumberProtocol / Info
20File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
21File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
25Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
67Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
68Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
80HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
88HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
110Post Office Protocol (POP3)
123Network Time Protocol (NTP)
389Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
443HTTP with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
8081TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
989FTP over SSL/TLS (Implicit mode)
990FTP over SSL/TLS (Implicit mode)
9090UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
9100TCP port used for printing
0 - 1023Assigned to common protocols & services.
1024 - 49151Registered ports assigned by ICANN to specific services.
49152 -65 535Dynamic (private, high) ports.

Graphics Standards Types :

Coax (c 1858)
And RF (1886)
Radio Frequency
And Coaxial Cable

RF (Radio Frequency) is just that, a
catch all term for what has become
a wide range of Radio frequencies
used in transmission/ broadcasting
either through the air or within a
cabler such as Coaxial Cables and in
the modern era ethernet cables. As
RF, coax and ethernet has become
ubiquitous in industrial, commercial,
and domestic markets the number of
ways they are used and the protocols
they use have also increased, to the
point where it is impossible to think
of them as a single standard.
The main protocols used with RF and
over Coax for video transmission/
broadcasting is NTSC, PAL,
and SECAM.
RGB (1928 Mechanically And 1938 Electronically)Red, Green, And Blue

The RGB color model is an additive
color model in which the red, green,
and blue primary colors of light are
added together in various ways to
reproduce a broad array of colors.
The name of the model comes from
the initials of the three additive
primary colors, red, green, and blue.
The main purpose of the RGB
color model is for the sensing,
representation, and display of
images in electronic systems, such
as televisions and computers, though
it has also been used in conventional
photography. Before the electronic
age, the RGB color model already
had a solid theory behind it, based
on human perception of colors. RGB
is a device dependent color model:
different devices detect or reproduce
a given RGB value differently, since
the color elements
(such as phosphors or dyes) and
their response to the individual red,
green, and blue levels vary from
manufacturer tomanufacturer,
or even in the same device over
time. Thus an RGB value does not
define the same color across devices
without some kind of color
Composite Video / RCA (1954)Composite Video AKA Radio Corporation Of America

Composite video is an analog video
signal format that carries standard
definition (SD) video (typically at 480i
or 576i resolution) as a single channel.
Video information is encoded on one
channel, unlike the higher quality
S-Video (two channels) and the even
higher quality component video
(three or more channels). In all of
these video formats, audio is carried
on a separate connection. Composite
video is also known by the initials
CVBS for composite video baseband
signal or color, video, blanking and
sync, or is simply referred to as SD
video for the standard definition
television signal it conveys. There
are three dominant variants of
composite video: NTSC, PAL,
and SECAM.
SCART (1976)Syndicat Des Constructeurs D'Appareils Radiorécepteurs
Et Téléviseurs

SCART in English translates to
"Radio and Television Receiver
Manufacturers' Association",
throughout the world, SCART is
known by various names and
acronyms e.g. Péritel or
Péritélévision, especially in
France, 21-pin EuroSCART in
marketing by Sharp in Asia,
Euroconector in Spain, EuroAV
or EXT, or EIA Multiport in the
United States, as an EIA interface) is
a French originated standard and
associated 21-pin connector for
connecting audio visual (AV)
equipment. The related European
standard EN 50049 has then been
refined and published in 1978 by
CENELEC, calling it péritelevision, but
it is commonly called by the
abbreviation péritel in French. The
signals carried by SCART include both
composite and RGB (with composite
synchronisation) video, stereo audio
input / output and digital signalling.
The standard was extended at the end
of the 1980s to support the new
S-Video signals. A TV can be woken
from standby mode and automatically
switch to the appropriate AV channel
when the SCART attached device is
switched on. SCART was also used for
high definition signals such as 720p,
1080i, 1080p with YPbPr connection
by some manufacturers, but this
usage is scarce due to the advent of
HDMI. In Europe, SCART was the most
common method of connecting AV
equipment and was a standard
connector for such devices; it was far
less common elsewhere. The official
standard for SCART is CENELEC
document number EN 50049–1.
SCART is sometimes referred to as
the IEC 933-1 standard.
MDA (1981)Monochrome Display Adapter

MDA, AKA Monochrome Display
and Printer Adapter (MDPA), is
IBM's standard video display card
and computer display standard for
the IBM PC introduced in 1981.
MDA does not have any pixel
addressable graphics modes, only
a single monochrome text mode
which can display 80 columns by
25 lines of high resolution text
characters or symbols useful for
drawing forms.
CGA (1981)Color Graphics Adapter

CGA AKA Color Graphics Monitor
Adapter, introduced in 1981, was
IBM's first color graphics card for
the IBM PC and established a de
facto computer display standard.
EGA (1984)Enhanced Graphics Adapter

EGA is an IBM PC graphics adapter
and de facto computer display
standard from 1984 that
superseded the CGA standard
introduced with the original IBM PC.
The original IBM CGA graphics card
came with 16 kilobytes of video
memory built in, and featured
several graphics and text modes.
The highest display resolution of any
mode was 640×200, and the highest
color depth supported was 4-bit
(16 colors).
MCGA (1987)Multi-Color Graphics Array

MCGA is a video subsystem built
into the motherboard of the IBM
PS/2 Model 30, introduced on
April 2, 1987, and Model 25,
introduced later on August 11;
no standalone MCGA cards were
ever made. The MCGA supports
all CGA display modes plus
640×480 monochrome at a
refresh rate of 60 Hz, and
320×200 with 256 colors
(out of a palette of 262,144) at
70 Hz. The display adapter uses
a DE-15 connector. MCGA is
similar to VGA in that it had a 256
color mode (the 256-color mode
in VGA was sometimes referred to
as MCGA) and uses 15-pin analog
connectors. The PS/2 chipset's
limited abilities prevents EGA
compatibility and high resolution
multi color VGA display modes.
VGA (1987)Video Graphics Array / Video Graphics Adapter

VGA is a video display controller
and accompanying de facto
graphics standard, first introduced
with the IBM PS/2 line of
computers in 1987, which
became ubiquitous in the PC
industry within three years.
The term can now refer
to the computer display standard,
the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA
connector, or the 640×480
resolution characteristic of
the VGA hardware. VGA was the last
IBM graphics standard to which the
majority of PC clone manufacturers
conformed, making it the lowest
common denominator that virtually
all post-1990 PC graphics hardware
can be expected to implement.
SVGA (1987)Super VGA / SVGA

SVGA is a broad term that covers a
wide range of computer display
standards that extended IBM's VGA
specification. When used as
shorthand for a resolution, as VGA
often is, SVGA refers to a resolution
of 800×600. In the late 1980s, after
the release of IBM's VGA, third-party
manufacturers began making graphics
cards based on its specifications with
extended capabilities. As these cards
grew in popularity they began to be
referred to as "Super VGA."
S-Video AKA Y/C (1987)Separate Video AKA Y (Intensity {Luminance}) C (Color {Chrominance})

S-Video is a signaling standard for
standard definition video, typically
480i or 576i. By separating the black
and white and coloring signals, it
achieves better image quality than
composite video, but has a lower
color resolution than component
video. S-Video was introduced with
JVC's S-VHS format in 1987. The image
is originally captured in RGB form and
then processed into three signals
known as YPbPr. The first of these
signals is called Y, which is created
from all three original signals based
on a formula that produces an overall
brightness of the image, or luma.
This signal closely matches a
traditional black and white television
signal and the Y/C method of
encoding was key to offering backward
compatibility. Once the Y signal is
produced, it is subtracted from the
blue signal to produce Pb and from
the red signal to produce Pr.
To recover the original RGB
information for display, the signals are
mixed with the Y to produce the original
blue and red, and then the sum of those
is mixed with the Y to recover the green.
Component Video (1990s)Component Video

Component video is an analog video
signal that has been split into two or
more component channels. In popular
use, it refers to a type of component
analog video (CAV) information that
is transmitted or stored as three
separate signals. Component video
can be contrasted with composite
video in which all the video information
is combined into a single signal that is
used in analog television. Like composite,
component video cables do not carry
audio and are often paired with audio
cables. When used without any other
qualifications, the term component
video usually refers to analog YPBPR
component video with sync on luma (Y)
found on analog high definition
televisions and associated equipment
from the 1990s through the 2000s
when they were largely replaced
with HDMI and other all digital
standards. Component video cables
and their RCA jack connectors on
equipment are normally color coded
red, green, and blue, although the
signal is not in RGB. YPbPr
component video can be losslessly
converted to the RGB signal that
internally drives the monitor; the
encoding is useful as the Y signal
will also work on black and white
FPD-Link (1996)Flat Panel Display Link

FPD-Link, is the original high speed
digital video interface created in
1996 by National Semiconductor
(now within Texas Instruments).
It is a free and open standard for
connecting the output from a
graphics processing unit in a laptop,
tablet computer, flat panel display,
or LCD television to the display
panel's timing controller. Most
laptops, tablet computers, flat panel
monitors and TVs use the interface
internally. FPD-Link was the first large
scale application of the low voltage
differential signaling (LVDS) standard.
National Semiconductor immediately
provided interoperability
specifications for the FPD-Link
technology in order to promote it as
a free and open standard, and thus
other IC suppliers were able to copy
it. FlatLink by TI was the first
interoperable version of FPD-Link.
By the end of the twentieth century,
the major notebook computer
manufacturers created the Standard
Panels Working Group (SPWG) and
made FPD-Link / FlatLink the standard
for transferring graphics and video
through the notebook's hinge.
DVI (1999)Digital Visual Interface

DVI, is a video display interface
developed by the Digital Display
Working Group (DDWG). The
digital interface is used to
connect a video source, such as
a video display controller, to a
display device, such as a
computer monitor. It was
developed with the intention of
creating an industry standard
for the transfer of digital video
content. This interface is designed
to transmit uncompressed
digital video and can be
configured to support multiple
modes such as DVI-A (analog only),
DVI-D (digital only) or DVI-I
(digital and analog). Featuring
support for analog connections,
the DVI specification is compatible
with the VGA interface. This
compatibility, along with other
advantages, led to its widespread
acceptance over competing digital
display standards Plug and Display
(P&D) and Digital Flat Panel (DFP).
Although DVI is predominantly
associated with computers, it is
sometimes used in other
consumer electronics such as
television sets and DVD players.
HDMI (2002)High-Definition Multimedia Interface

HDMI is a proprietary audio/video
interface for transmitting
uncompressed video data
and compressed or uncompressed
digital audio data from an HDMI
compliant source device, such as a
display controller, to a compatible
computer monitor, video projector,
digital television, or digital audio
device.[3] HDMI is a digital
replacement for analog video
standards. HDMI implements the
EIA/CEA-861 standards, which
define video formats and
waveforms, transport of
compressed and uncompressed
LPCM audio, auxiliary data, and
implementations of the VESA EDID.
The CEC capability allows HDMI
devices to control each other when
necessary and allows the user to
operate multiple devices with one
handheld remote control device
Several versions of HDMI have been
developed and deployed since the
initial release of the technology, but
all use the same cable and connector.
Other than improved audio and
video capacity, performance,
resolution and color spaces,
newer versions have optional
advanced features such as 3D,
Ethernet data connection, and
CEC extensions.
DP (2006)Display Port

DP is a digital display interface
developed by a consortium of PC and
chip manufacturers and standardized
by the Video Electronics Standards
Association (VESA). It is primarily used
to connect a video source to a display
device such as a computer monitor.
It can also carry audio, USB, and other
forms of data. Display Port was designed
to replace VGA, FPD-Link, and Digital
Visual Interface (DVI). It is backward
compatible with other interfaces, such as
HDMI and DVI, through the use of either
active or passive adapters. It is the first
display interface to rely on packetized
data transmission, a form of digital
communication found in technologies
such as Ethernet, USB, and PCI Express



Active Directory

Active Directory is a directory service developed
by Microsoft for Windows domain networks.
It is included in most Windows Server operating
systems as a set of processes and services.
AADAzure Active Directory

Azure Active Directory (Azure AD or AAD) is
Microsoft's enterprise cloud-based identity
and access management (IAM) solution.
Azure AD is the backbone of the Office 365
system, and it can sync with on-premise
Active Directory and provide authentication
to other cloud-based systems via OAuth
LDAPLightweight Directory Access Protocol

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
is an open, vendor neutral, industry standard
application protocol for accessing and
maintaining distributed directory information
services over an Internet Protocol network.
MMCMicrosoft Management Console

Microsoft Management Console is a
component of Windows 2000 and its
successors that provides system
administrators and advanced users an
interface for configuring and monitoring
the system.
SCOMSystem Centre Operations Manager

System Center Operations Manager is a cross
platform data center monitoring system for
operating systems and hypervisors. It uses a
single interface that shows state, health and
performance information of computer systems.
SCCMSystem Centre Configuration Manager

Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager
(Configuration Manager, also known as
ConfigMgror MEMCM), formerly
System Center Configuration Manager
(SCCM) and Systems Management Server
(SMS) is a systems management software
product developed by Microsoft for
managing large groups of computers running
Windows NT, Windows Embedded, macOS
(OS X), Linux or UNIX, as well as Windows
Phone, Symbian, iOS and Android mobile
operating systems. Configuration Manager
provides remote control, patch management,
software distribution, operating system
deployment, network access protection and
hardware and software
UEFIUnified Extensible Firmware Interface

The UEFI Interface is a specification that defines a
software interface between an operating system
and platform firmware.
MIPSMillions Of Instructions Per Second

Instructions per second, in most modern
computers it is now in the millions hence MIPS
as opposed to just IPS is a measure of a
computer's processor speed. For complex
instruction set computers, different instructions
take different amounts of time, so the value
measured depends on the instruction mix; even
for comparing processors in the same family the
IPS measurement can be problematic.
FLOPSFloating Point Operations Per Second

In computing, floating point operations per second
is a measure of computer performance, useful in
fields of scientific computations that require floating
point calculations. For such cases it is a more accurate
measure than measuring instructions per second
TPITracks Per Inch

TPI is the number of tracks a disk can hold.
For example, a 5.25 inch floppy disk
(double density) has 48 TPI, a high density
3.5 inch disk has 135 TPI, and hard drives
(HDDs) have much higher TPI count,
far into the thousands.
TTLTime To Live

Time to live or hop limit is a mechanism
that limits the lifespan or lifetime of data
in a computer or network. TTL may be
implemented as a counter or timestamp
attached to or embedded in the data. Once
the prescribed event count or timespan
has elapsed, data is discarded or revalidated.
PSTNPublic Switched Telephone Network

The PSTN provides infrastructure and
services for public telecommunication.
The PSTN is the aggregate of the
world's circuit switched telephone
networks that are operated by national,
regional, or local telephony operators.
These consist of telephone lines, fiber
optic cables, microwave transmission
links, cellular networks, communications
satellites, and undersea telephone cables,
all interconnected by switching
centers which allow most telephones to
communicate with each other.
Originally a network of fixed line analog
telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost
entirely digital in its core network and
includes mobile and other networks, as well
as fixed telephones.
PBXPrivate Branch eXchange

A PBX system is a multiline telephone system
typically used in business environments,
encompassing systems ranging in technology
from the key telephone system (KTS) to the
private branch exchange (PBX).
A business telephone system differs from an
installation of several telephones with multiple
central office (CO) lines in that the CO lines used
are directly controllable in key telephone systems
from multiple telephone stations, and that such a
system often provides additional features related
to call handling. Business telephone systems are
often broadly classified into key telephone systems,
and private branch exchanges, but many hybrid
systems exist.


ACTAAdministrative Council For Terminal Attachments

The ACTA is an open organization
established by the FCC and jointly
sponsored by the Alliance for
Telecommunications Industry
Solutions (ATIS) and the
Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA). The mission of
the ACTA is to:

Adopt technical criteria and to act as the
clearing house, publishing technical criteria
for terminal equipment
(Part 68 Compliance/scope C) developed by
ANSI‐accredited standards development
organizations; and establish and maintain a
registration database of equipment
approved as compliant with the
technical criteria.
ANSIAmerican National Standards Institute

ANSI is a private non-profit organization that
oversees the development of voluntary
consensus standards for products, services,
processes, systems, and personnel in the
United States. The organization also
coordinates U.S. standards with international
standards so that American products can be
used worldwide. ANSI accredits standards that
are developed by representatives of other
standards organizations, government agencies,
consumer groups, companies, and others.
These standards ensure that the characteristics
and performance of products are consistent,
that people use the same definitions and terms,
and that products are tested the same way.
ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out
product or personnel certification in accordance
with requirements defined in international
standards. ANSI was founded in 1918.
CENComité Européen de Normalisation

Which translates as, "European Committee for
Standardization" is a public standards
organization whose mission is to foster the
economy of the European Single Market and
the wider European continent in global trading,
the welfare of European citizens and the
environment by providing an efficient
infrastructure to interested parties for the
development, maintenance and distribution of
coherent sets of standards and specifications.
The CEN was founded in 1961. It's thirty four
national members work together to develop
European Standards (ENs) in various sectors to
build a European internal market for goods and
services and to position Europe in the global
economy. CEN is officially recognized as a
European standards body by the European
Union, European Free Trade Association and
the United Kingdom
Comité Européen de Normalisation électronique?

Unable to source any information on this
now seemingly disbanded/defunct organisation.
CENELECComité Européen De Normalisation Électrotechnique

Which translates as, "European Committee for
Electrotechnical Standardization" is responsible
for European standardization in the area of
electrical engineering. Together with ETSI
(see ETSI) and CEN (see CEN), it forms the
European system for technical standardization.
Standards harmonised by these agencies are
regularly adopted in many countries outside
Europe which follow European technical standards.
Although CENELEC works closely with the European
Union, it is not an EU institution. Nevertheless, its
standards are "EN" EU (and EEA) standards, thanks
to EU Regulation 1025/2012. CENELEC was founded
in 1973. Before that two organizations were
responsible for electrotechnical standardization,
they were CENELCOM and CENEL. CENELEC is a
non-profit organization under Belgian law, based in
Brussels. The members are the national
electrotechnical standardization bodies of most
European countries.
EIAElectronics Industries Alliance

The Electronic Industries Alliance
(EIA; until 1997 Electronic Industries
Association) was an American standards
and trade organization (founded in 1924)
composed as an alliance of trade
associations for electronics
manufacturers in the United States.
They developed standards to ensure the
equipment of different manufacturers was
compatible and interchangeable. It is now
Dormant, pending merger with National
Electronic Distributors Association,
rebranded into Electronic Components
Industry Association. It's successor is the
Electronic Components Industry Association
(ECIA), see Global Standards Collaboration
EFFElectronic Frontier Foundation

The EFF is an international non profit digital
rights group based in San Francisco, California.
The foundation was formed on 10 July 1990
by John Gilmore, John Perry Barlow and Mitch
Kapor to promote Internet civil liberties.
The EFF provides funds for legal defense in
court, presents amicus curiae briefs, defends
individuals and new technologies from what it
considers abusive legal threats, works to
expose government malfeasance, provides
guidance to the government and courts,
organizes political action and mass mailings,
supports some new technologies which it
believes preserve personal freedoms and
online civil liberties, maintains a database
and web sites of related news and
information, monitors and challenges potential
legislation that it believes would infringe on
personal liberties and fair use and solicits a list
of what it considers abusive patents with
intentions to defeat those that it considers
without merit.
ETAElectronics Technicians Association

The ETA International® is a US-based NPO
501(c)(6) trade association founded in 1978.
The association provides certifications in
industries such as basic electronics, fiber
optics and data cabling, renewable energy,
information technology, photonics and
precision optics, customer service,
biomedical, avionics, wireless communications
radar, and smart home. ETA is also one of the
12 COLEMs (See COLEMS) for the U.S. FCC
(See FCC) testing. ETA works with technicians,
educators, and military personnel. ETA also
partners with companies such as Motorola
Solutions to provide certification to
their employees.
ETSIEuropean Telecommunications Standards Institute

The ETSI is an independent, not-for-profit,
standardization organization in the field of
information and communications. The ETSI
supports the development and testing of
global technical standards for ICT enabled
systems, applications and services.
FCCFederal Communications Commission

The FCC is an independent agency of the
United States government that regulates
communications by radio, television, wire,
satellite, and cable across the United States.
Although a US organisation, its policies and
recommendations are often adopted by other
nations, such as the UK.
GSCGlobal Standards Collaboration

The GSC was originally the "Interregional
Telecommunications Standards conference (ITSC)
back in 1990. This was an initiative of the T1
Committee of the United States who invited the
other founding partner organizations ITU-T, ETSI
and the Japanese TTC to the first ISC Meeting in
Fredericksburg, VA. The goal was set by the
“spirit of Melbourne”, stemming from a CCITT
Plenary Assembly, to find a way of cooperation
between Participating Standards Organizations
(PSOs) from different regions of the world in
order to facilitate global standardization within
the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
The ITSC focussed its work on fixed
telecommunications networks.

After a few years, the ITSC, as a conference,
became too large and was therefore reduced to
the Global Standards Collaboration (GSC), with
delegations limited to a reasonable size (10 maximum).
The first GSC meeting was held in 1994 in Melbourne,
Australia. Around the same time, it was decided to
expand the scope to cover Radio Communications with
the addition of a parallel set of Global Radio
Standardization (RAST) meeting, the first one being
hosted by ETSI in Nice in October 1994.

Over the course of time, the Australian, Canadian,
Korean and Chinese national standards organizations
joined bringing the number of Participating Standards
Organizations to ten. Observers from other standards
related organizations and Fora are also invited to participate.

In November 2001, it was decided to rename GSC
as GTSC (where T = Telecoms) and RAST as GRSC
(where R = Radio) and to use the term GSC an overall
"umbrella" for the combined plenary sessions.
IEEEInstitute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers

The IEEE is a professional association for
electronic engineering and electrical
engineering (and associated disciplines) It was
formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers and
the Institute of Radio Engineers.

Due to its expansion of scope into so many
related fields, it is simply referred to by the
letters I-E-E-E (pronounced I-triple-E), except on
legal business documents. Its objectives are the
educational and technical advancement of
electrical and electronic engineering,
telecommunications, computer engineering
and similar disciplines
IESGInternet Engineering Steering Group

The IESG is responsible for the technical
management of IETF activities and the Internet
standards process. The IESG administers the
process according to the rules and procedures
that have been ratified by the Internet Society
trustees [RFC 2026]. It is directly responsible for
the actions associated with entry into and
movement along the Internet "standards track,"
including final approval of specifications as
Internet Standards.

IETFInternet Engineering Task Force

IETF is an open standards organization, which
develops and promotes voluntary Internet
standards, in particular, the standards that
comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
It has no formal membership roster or
membership requirements. All participants
and managers are volunteers, though their
work is usually funded by their employers
or sponsors.
IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission

The IEC is an international standards organization
that prepares and publishes international
standards for all electrical, electronic and related
technologies, collectively known as
ISOInternational Organization For Standardization

The ISO is an international standard-setting
body composed of representatives from
various national standards organizations.
Founded on 23 February 1947, the
organization develops and publishes
worldwide technical, industrial and
commercial standards. It is headquartered
in Geneva, Switzerland[4] and works in
165 countries.
NICEICNational Inspection Council for Electrical Installation Contracting

NICEIC is one of several organisations which
regulates the training and work of electrical
enterprises in the UK. NICEIC is one of several
providers given Government approval to offer
Competent Person Schemes to oversee electrical
work within the electrical industry in the UK.
OFFCOMOffice Of Communications

Ofcom is the government-approved regulatory
and competition authority for the broadcasting,
telecommunications and postal industries of the
United Kingdom. Ofcom has wide ranging
powers across the television, radio, telecoms
and postal sectors. It has a statutory duty to
represent the interests of citizens and consumers
by promoting competition and protecting the
public from harmful or offensive material.
Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over
are licensing, research, codes and policies,
complaints, competition and protecting the radio
spectrum from abuse (e.g. pirate radio stations).
The regulator was initially established by the
Office of Communications Act 2002 and received
its full authority from the Communications Act
2003 the creation of Ofcom was announced in
the Queen's Speech to the UK Parliament, in
June 2001. The new body, which would replace
several existing authorities, was conceived as a
"super-regulator" to oversee media channels
that were rapidly converging through digital
transmission. Ofcom launched on 29
December 2003, formally inheriting the duties
that had previously been the responsibility of
five different regulators:

The Broadcasting Standards Commission
The Independent Television Commission
The Office of Telecommunications (Oftel)
The Radio Authority
The Radiocommunications Agency
SCARTSyndicat Des Constructeurs D'Appareils Radiorécepteurs Et Téléviseurs

Which translates as, "Radio and Television
Receiver Manufacturers' Association", the French
organisation that created the SCART connector in
the mid 1970s. The related European standard
EN 50049 has then been refined and published in
1978 by CENELEC, calling it péritelevision, but it is
commonly called by the abbreviation
"Péritel" in French.

Unable to locate any futher information.

TIATelecommunications Industry Association

The TIA (Founded in 1988) is accredited
by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary,
consensus-based industry standards for
a wide variety of Information and
Communication Technologies products,
and currently represents nearly
400 companies.
VESAVideo Electronics Standards Association

VESA is an American technical standards
organization for computer display standards.
The organization was incorporated in California
in July 1989 and has its office in San Jose.
It claims a membership of over 300 companies.
In November 1988, NEC Home Electronics
announced its creation of the association to
develop and promote a Super VGA computer
display standard as a successor to IBM's
proprietary Video Graphics Array (VGA)
display standard. Super VGA enabled graphics
display resolutions up to 800×600 pixels,
compared to VGA's maximum resolution of
640×480 pixels an increase of 36%.
The organization has since issued several
additional standards related to computer
video displays. Widely used VESA standards
include DisplayHDR, DisplayPort, and
Flat Display Mounting Interface (FDMI)
AKA a VESA Mount.


3MMinnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company
Founded by
Dr. J. Danley Budd
Henry. S. Bryan
William A. McGonagle
John Dwan
Hermon W. Cable

Founded in 1902
Acer IncAcer Inc
Romanized name
Hóngqí Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī
Founded by
Stan Shih
Carolyn Yeh
George Huang

Founded in 1976
Asus (Huáshuò in Chinese)Pegasus
According to the company website,
the name Asus originates from Pegasus,
the winged horse of Greek mythology
Romanized name
Huáshuò Diànnǎo Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī
Founded by
Ted Hsu, M.T. Liao,
Wayne Tsiah, T.H. Tung,
Luca D.M

Founded in 1989
DellDell (Formerly PC's Limited 1984-1987)
Is named after the company founder
Michael Saul Dell
Founded in 1984
Which was named after the founder's
Founded by
Bill Hewlett,
David Packard

Founded in 1939
LenovoLenovo (Legend 1984 - 2002)
Lenovo" is a portmanteau of "Le-"
(from Legend) and "novo", Latin ablative
for "new". The Chinese name (simplified
Chinese: 联想; traditional Chinese: 聯想;
pinyin: Liánxiǎng) means "association"
(as in "association of ideas"),
"associative thinking", or
"connected thinking".
It also implies creativity.
Founded by
Liu Chuanzhi
Danny Lui

Founded in 1984
MSIMicro-Star International
Founded by
Joseph Hsu, Jeans Huang,
Frank Lin, Kenny Yu,
Henry Lu

Founded in 1986
NECNippon Electric Company, Limited
Romanized name
Nippon Denki Kabushiki Gaisha
Founded by
Kunihiko Iwadare,
Takeshiro Maeda

Founded in 1899
RS ComponentsRadiospares Components
Founded by
J.H. Waring,
P.M. Sebestyen

Founded in 1937


OSI MODELOpen Systems Interconnection Model
Application LayThe application layer is the user facing part of
the system, in this case, the GUI / CLI. It allows
the user to see and interact with the device and
its various applications such as Outlook, Google
Chrome, Teams, Games, CMD and any other
application or GUI / CLI the users can access.
This is the layer most people are familiar with in
their daily use of their device.
Presentation LayerThe presentation layer formats or translates data
for the application layer based on the syntax or
semantics that the application accepts. Because
of this, it is at times also called the syntax layer.
This layer can also handle the encryption and
decryption required by the application layer.
Session LayerThe session layer controls the conversations
between different computers. A session or
the connection between machines is set up,
managed, and terminated at layer 5. Session
layer services also include authentication
and reconnections.
Transport LayerThe transport layer manages the delivery and
error checking of data packets. It regulates
the size, sequencing, and ultimately the
transfer of data between systems and
hosts. One of the most common examples o
the transport layer is TCP or the Transmission
Control Protocol.
Network LayerThe network layer is responsible for receiving
frames from the data link layer and delivering
them to their intended destinations based on
the addresses contained inside the frame.
The network layer finds the destination by
using logical addresses, such as
IP (internet protocol). At this layer, routers
are a crucial component used to quite literally
route information where it needs to go
between networks.
Data Link LayerAt the data link layer, directly connected
nodes are used to perform node to node
data transfer where data is packaged into
frames. The data link layer also corrects errors
that may have occurred at the physical layer.
The data link layer encompasses two sub-layers
of its own. The first, media access control
(MAC), provides flow control and multiplexing
for device transmissions over a network.
The second, the logical link control (LLC),
provides flow and error control over the
physical medium as well as identifies
line protocols.
Physical LayerThe lowest layer of the OSI Model is concerned
with electrically or optically transmitting raw
unstructured data bits across the network from
the physical layer of the sending device to the
physical layer of the receiving device. It can
include specifications such as voltages, pin
layout, cabling, and radio frequencies. At
the physical layer, one might find
“physical” resources such as network
hubs, cabling, repeaters, network
adapters or modems.


TCP/IP MODELOpen Systems Interconnection Model
ApplicationThis layer provides applications with standardized
data exchange. Its protocols include HTTP, FTP,
Post Office Protocol 3, Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol and Simple Network Management
Protocol. At the application layer, the payload is
the actual application data.
TransportThis layer is responsible for maintaining end
to end communications across the network.
TCP handles communications between hosts
and provides flow control, multiplexing, and
reliability. The transport protocols include TCP
and User Datagram Protocol, which is
sometimes used instead of TCP for special
NetworkThis layer is also called the internet layer,
deals with packets and connects independent
networks to transport the packets across
network boundaries. The network layer
protocols are IP and Internet Control
Message Protocol, which is used for
error reporting.
Network InterfaceAlso known as the network interface layer or
data link layer, consists of protocols that operate
only on a link -- the network component that
interconnects nodes or hosts in the network.
The protocols in this lowest layer include Ethernet
for local area networks and Address Resolution


ASCII Code NumberControl Character
ASCII code 00NULL ( Null character )
ASCII code 01SOH ( Start of Header )
ASCII code 02STX ( Start of Text )
ASCII code 03ETX ( End of Text, hearts card suit )
ASCII code 04EOT ( End of Transmission, diamonds card suit )
ASCII code 05ENQ ( Enquiry, clubs card suit )
ASCII code 06ACK ( Acknowledgement, spade card suit )
ASCII code 07BEL ( Bell )
ASCII code 08BS ( Backspace )
ASCII code 09HT ( Horizontal Tab )
ASCII code 10LF ( Line feed )
ASCII code 11VT ( Vertical Tab, male symbol, symbol for Mars )
ASCII code 12FF ( Form feed, female symbol, symbol for Venus )
ASCII code 13CR ( Carriage return )
ASCII code 14SO ( Shift Out )
ASCII code 15SI ( Shift In )
ASCII code 16DLE ( Data link escape )
ASCII code 17DC1 ( Device control 1 )
ASCII code 18DC1 ( Device control 2 )
ASCII code 19DC1 ( Device control 3 )
ASCII code 20DC1 ( Device control 4 )
ASCII code 21NAK ( NAK Negative-acknowledge )
ASCII code 22SYN ( Synchronous idle )
ASCII code 23ETB ( End of trans. block )
ASCII code 24CAN ( Cancel )
ASCII code 25EM ( End of medium )
ASCII code 26SUB ( Substitute )
ASCII code 27ESC ( Escape )
ASCII code 28FS ( File separator )
ASCII code 29GS ( Group separator )
ASCII code 30RS ( Record separator )
ASCII code 31US ( Unit separator )
ASCII code 127DEL ( Delete )


ASCII CODE NUMBERExtended Characters
ASCII code 128Ç ( Majuscule C-cedilla
ASCII code 129ü ( letter u with umlaut or diaeresis , u-umlaut )
ASCII code 130é ( letter e with acute accent or e-acute )
ASCII code 131â ( letter a with circumflex accent or a-circumflex )
ASCII code 132ä ( letter a with umlaut or diaeresis , a-umlaut )
ASCII code 133à ( letter a with grave accent )
ASCII code 134å ( letter a with a ring )
ASCII code 135ç ( Minuscule c-cedilla )
ASCII code 136ê ( letter e with circumflex accent or e-circumflex )
ASCII code 137ë ( letter e with umlaut or diaeresis ; e-umlauts )
ASCII code 138è ( letter e with grave accent )
ASCII code 139ï ( letter i with umlaut or diaeresis ; i-umlaut )
ASCII code 140î ( letter i with circumflex accent or i-circumflex )
ASCII code 141ì ( letter i with grave accent )
ASCII code 142Ä ( letter A with umlaut or diaeresis ; A-umlaut )
ASCII code 143Å ( Capital letter A with a ring )
ASCII code 144É ( Capital letter E with acute accent or E-acute )
ASCII code 145æ ( Latin diphthong ae in lowercase )
ASCII code 146Æ ( Latin diphthong AE in uppercase )
ASCII code 147ô ( letter o with circumflex accent or o-circumflex )
ASCII code 148ö ( letter o with umlaut or diaeresis ; o-umlaut )
ASCII code 149ò ( letter o with grave accent )
ASCII code 150û ( letter u with circumflex accent or u-circumflex )
ASCII code 151ù ( letter u with grave accent )
ASCII code 152ÿ ( Lowercase letter y with diaeresis )
ASCII code 153Ö ( Letter O with umlaut or diaeresis ; O-umlaut )
ASCII code 154Ü ( Letter U with umlaut or diaeresis ; U-umlaut )
ASCII code 155ø ( Lowercase slashed zero or empty set )
ASCII code 156£ ( Pound sign ; symbol for the pound sterling )
ASCII code 157Ø ( Uppercase slashed zero or empty set )
ASCII code 158× ( Multiplication sign )
ASCII code 159ƒ ( Function sign ; f with hook sign ; florin sign )
ASCII code 160á ( Lowercase letter a with acute accent or a-acute )
ASCII code 161í ( Lowercase letter i with acute accent or i-acute )
ASCII code 162ó ( Lowercase letter o with acute accent or o-acute )
ASCII code 163ú ( Lowercase letter u with acute accent or u-acute )
ASCII code 164ñ ( eñe, enie, spanish letter enye, lowercase n with tilde )
ASCII code 165Ñ ( Spanish letter enye, uppercase N with tilde, EÑE, enie )
ASCII code 166ª ( feminine ordinal indicator )
ASCII code 167º ( masculine ordinal indicator )
ASCII code 168¿ ( Inverted question marks )
ASCII code 169® ( Registered trademark symbol )
ASCII code 170¬ ( Logical negation symbol )
ASCII code 171½ ( One half )
ASCII code 172¼ ( Quarter, one fourth )
ASCII code 173¡ ( Inverted exclamation marks )
ASCII code 174« ( Angle quotes, guillemets, right-pointing quotation mark )
ASCII code 175» ( Guillemets, angle quotes, left-pointing quotation marks )
ASCII code 176░ ( Graphic character, low density dotted )
ASCII code 177▒ ( Graphic character, medium density dotted )
ASCII code 178▓ ( Graphic character, high density dotted )
ASCII code 179│ ( Box drawing character single vertical line )
ASCII code 180┤ ( Box drawing character single vertical and left line )
ASCII code 181Á ( Capital letter A with acute accent or A-acute )
ASCII code 182Â ( Letter A with circumflex accent or A-circumflex )
ASCII code 183À ( Letter A with grave accent )
ASCII code 184© ( Copyright symbol )
ASCII code 185╣ ( Box drawing character double line vertical and left )
ASCII code 186║ ( Box drawing character double vertical line )
ASCII code 187╗ ( Box drawing character double line upper right corner )
ASCII code 188╝ ( Box drawing character double line lower right corner )
ASCII code 189¢ ( Cent symbol )
ASCII code 190¥ ( YEN and YUAN sign )
ASCII code 191┐ ( Box drawing character single line upper right corner )
ASCII code 192└ ( Box drawing character single line lower left corner )
ASCII code 193┴ ( Box drawing character single line horizontal and up )
ASCII code 194┬ ( Box drawing character single line horizontal down )
ASCII code 195├ ( Box drawing character single line vertical and right )
ASCII code 196─ ( Box drawing character single horizontal line )
ASCII code 197┼ ( Box drawing character single line horizontal vertical )
ASCII code 198ã ( Lowercase letter a with tilde or a-tilde )
ASCII code 199Ã ( Capital letter A with tilde or A-tilde )
ASCII code 200╚ ( Box drawing character double line lower left corner )
ASCII code 201╔ ( Box drawing character double line upper left corner )
ASCII code 202╩ ( Box drawing character double line horizontal and up )
ASCII code 203╦ ( Box drawing character double line horizontal down )
ASCII code 204╠ ( Box drawing character double line vertical and right )
ASCII code 205═ ( Box drawing character double horizontal line )
ASCII code 206╬ ( Box drawing character double line horizontal vertical )
ASCII code 207¤ ( Generic currency sign )
ASCII code 208ð ( Lowercase letter eth )
ASCII code 209Ð ( Capital letter Eth )
ASCII code 210Ê ( Letter E with circumflex accent or E-circumflex )
ASCII code 211Ë ( Letter E with umlaut or diaeresis, E-umlaut )
ASCII code 212È ( Capital letter E with grave accent )
ASCII code 213ı ( Lowercase dot less i )
ASCII code 214Í ( Capital letter I with acute accent or I-acute )
ASCII code 215Î ( Letter I with circumflex accent or I-circumflex )
ASCII code 216Ï ( Letter I with umlaut or diaeresis ; I-umlaut )
ASCII code 217┘ ( Box drawing character single line lower right corner )
ASCII code 218┌ ( Box drawing character single line upper left corner )
ASCII code 219█ ( Block, graphic character )
ASCII code 220▄ ( Bottom half block )
ASCII code 221¦ ( Vertical broken bar )
ASCII code 222 Ì ( Capital letter I with grave accent )
ASCII code 223▀ ( Top half block )
ASCII code 224Ó ( Capital letter O with acute accent or O-acute )
ASCII code 225ß ( Letter Eszett ; scharfes S or sharp S )
ASCII code 226Ô ( Letter O with circumflex accent or O-circumflex )
ASCII code 227Ò ( Capital letter O with grave accent )
ASCII code 228õ ( Lowercase letter o with tilde or o-tilde )
ASCII code 229õ ( Lowercase letter o with tilde or o-tilde )
ASCII code 230µ ( Lowercase letter Mu ; micro sign or micron )
ASCII code 231þ ( Lowercase letter Thorn )
ASCII code 232Þ ( Capital letter Thorn )
ASCII code 233Ú ( Capital letter U with acute accent or U-acute )
ASCII code 234Û ( Letter U with circumflex accent or U-circumflex )
ASCII code 235Ù ( Capital letter U with grave accent )
ASCII code 236ý ( Lowercase letter y with acute accent )
ASCII code 237Ý ( Capital letter Y with acute accent )
ASCII code 238¯ ( Macron symbol )
ASCII code 239´ ( Acute accent )
ASCII code 240≡ ( Congruence relation symbol )
ASCII code 241± ( Plus-minus sign )
ASCII code 242‗ ( underline or underscore )
ASCII code 243¾ ( three quarters, three-fourths )
ASCII code 244¶ ( Paragraph sign or pilcrow ; end paragraph mark )
ASCII code 245§ ( Section sign )
ASCII code 246÷ ( The division sign ; Obelus )
ASCII code 247 ¸ ( cedilla )
ASCII code 248° ( Degree symbol )
ASCII code 249¨ ( Diaresis )
ASCII code 250· ( Interpunct or space dot )
ASCII code 251¹ ( Superscript one, exponent 1, first power )
ASCII code 252³ ( Superscript three, exponent 3, cube, third power )
ASCII code 253² ( Superscript two, exponent 2, square, second power )
ASCII code 254■ ( black square )
ASCII code 255nbsp ( Non-breaking space or no-break space )

ASCII Extended Characters :

ASCII code 32space ( Space )
ASCII code 33 ! ( Exclamation mark )
ASCII code 34" ( Double quotes ; Quotation mark ; speech marks )
ASCII code 35# ( Number sign )
ASCII code 36$ ( Dollar sign )
ASCII code 37% ( Percent sign )
ASCII code 38& ( Ampersand )
ASCII code 39' ( Single quote or Apostrophe )
ASCII code 40( ( round brackets or parentheses, opening round bracket )
ASCII code 41) ( parentheses or round brackets, closing parentheses )
ASCII code 42* ( Asterisk )
ASCII code 43+ ( Plus sign )
ASCII code 44, ( Comma )
ASCII code 45- ( Hyphen , minus sign )
ASCII code 46. ( Dot, full stop )
ASCII code 47/ ( Slash , forward slash , fraction bar , division slash )
ASCII code 480 ( number zero )
ASCII code 491 ( number one )
ASCII code 502 ( number two )
ASCII code 513 ( number three )
ASCII code 524 ( number four )
ASCII code 535 ( number five )
ASCII code 546 ( number six )
ASCII code 55 7 ( number seven )
ASCII code 568 ( number eight )
ASCII code 579 ( number nine )
ASCII code 58: ( Colon )
ASCII code 59; ( Semicolon )
ASCII code 60< ( Less-than sign )
ASCII code 61#NAME?
ASCII code 62> ( Greater-than sign ; Inequality )
ASCII code 63? ( Question mark )
ASCII code 64@ ( At sign )
ASCII code 65A ( Capital letter A )
ASCII code 66B ( Capital letter B )
ASCII code 67C ( Capital letter C )
ASCII code 68D ( Capital letter D )
ASCII code 69E ( Capital letter E )
ASCII code 70E ( Capital letter E )
ASCII code 71G ( Capital letter G )
ASCII code 72H ( Capital letter H )
ASCII code 73I ( Capital letter I )
ASCII code 74J ( Capital letter J )
ASCII code 75K ( Capital letter K )
ASCII code 76L ( Capital letter L )
ASCII code 77M ( Capital letter M )
ASCII code 78N ( Capital letter N )
ASCII code 79O ( Capital letter O )
ASCII code 80P ( Capital letter P )
ASCII code 81Q ( Capital letter Q )
ASCII code 82R ( Capital letter R )
ASCII code 83S ( Capital letter S )
ASCII code 84T ( Capital letter T )
ASCII code 85U ( Capital letter U )
ASCII code 86V ( Capital letter V )
ASCII code 87W ( Capital letter W )
ASCII code 88X ( Capital letter X )
ASCII code 89Y ( Capital letter Y )
ASCII code 90Z ( Capital letter Z )
ASCII code 91[ ( square brackets or box brackets, opening bracket )
ASCII code 92\ ( Backslash , reverse slash )
ASCII code 93] ( box brackets or square brackets, closing bracket )
ASCII code 94^ ( Circumflex accent or Caret )
ASCII code 95_ ( underscore , understrike , underbar or low line )
ASCII code 96` ( Grave accent )
ASCII code 97a ( Lowercase letter a , minuscule a )
ASCII code 98b ( Lowercase letter b , minuscule b )
ASCII code 99c ( Lowercase letter c , minuscule c )
ASCII code 100d ( Lowercase letter d , minuscule d )
ASCII code 101e ( Lowercase letter e , minuscule e )
ASCII code 102f ( Lowercase letter f , minuscule f )
ASCII code 103g ( Lowercase letter g , minuscule g )
ASCII code 104h ( Lowercase letter h , minuscule h )
ASCII code 105i ( Lowercase letter i , minuscule i )
ASCII code 106j ( Lowercase letter j , minuscule j )
ASCII code 107k ( Lowercase letter k , minuscule k )
ASCII code 108l ( Lowercase letter l , minuscule l )
ASCII code 109m ( Lowercase letter m , minuscule m )
ASCII code 110n ( Lowercase letter n , minuscule n )
ASCII code 111o ( Lowercase letter o , minuscule o )
ASCII code 112p ( Lowercase letter p , minuscule p )
ASCII code 113q ( Lowercase letter q , minuscule q )
ASCII code 114r ( Lowercase letter r , minuscule r )
ASCII code 115s ( Lowercase letter s , minuscule s )
ASCII code 116t ( Lowercase letter t , minuscule t )
ASCII code 117u ( Lowercase letter u , minuscule u )
ASCII code 118v ( Lowercase letter v , minuscule v )
ASCII code 119w ( Lowercase letter w , minuscule w )
ASCII code 120x ( Lowercase letter x , minuscule x )
ASCII code 121y ( Lowercase letter y , minuscule y )
ASCII code 122z ( Lowercase letter z , minuscule z )
ASCII code 123{ ( braces or curly brackets, opening braces )
ASCII code 124| ( vertical-bar, vbar, vertical line or vertical slash )
ASCII code 125} ( curly brackets or braces, closing curly brackets )
ASCII code 126~ ( Tilde ; swung dash )

Agisoft Metashape
Ethan Makes 3D Scanner App
Open MVG
Visual SFM


itSeez3D (Requiers An iPad / iPhone)
ReCap Pro

3 Axis Devices (View, Design, Edit, And Create, Software) :

Laser Cutter - Lightburn




iPod - Elite Obsolete Electronics
iPod - iFlash Adapters
Microcore Labs - MCL65+ (6502 CPU replacment)
Nanovna-F_V2 3G Mini vector network analyzer
Nanovna-F_V2 - Hardware Versions
LTE Rotary Cell Un-Smartphone (Justine Haupt)
Project Air (Project Kits)
Robotics Platforms (Adaptable / Reconfigurable) (Justine Haupt)
Sensors IOT And More (Andreas Spiess)
Seeed Studio XIAO (Diminutive Development Boards)


Abourt shutdown, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
shutdown -a
Search within a Microsoft Teams chat:
Reset MFA for Microsoft Oiffcie 365, vist the site below:
Reset OneDrive sync, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
%localappdata%\Microsoft\OneDrive\onedrive.exe /reset
The location of the Templates folder for Microsoft Office Products:
Outlook sfae mode, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
outlook.exe /safe
Outlook reset all views to default in 2013 / 2016, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
outlook.exe /cleanviews
Outlook reset the navigation pane, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
outlook.exe /resetnavpane
Outlook repair PST & OST on Windows 10 / 8 / 7 / XP, use the steps below:
1) Open Outlook
2) Open “Task Manager”
3) Select the “Processes” tab from the top of the bar on “Task Manager”
4) Right click on Outlook and choose "Open File Location"
5) Run "scanpst.exe"

Silent disk cleanup, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
c:\windows\SYSTEM32\cleanmgr.exe /dDrive
(NB: The placeholder "Drive", represents the drive letter of the hard disk to be cleaned.)
If you encounter an issues or are unable to download a file in
Google Chrome, you can use the commend below to perform
a hard reset of Goole Chrome:
If you're encountering display or graphics issues, you can use the
commend below to force Windows to take action. This shortcut alerts
the system to a potential graphics issue, which results in Windows
restarting your video driver.:
If you are unable to access a website for whatever reason
(Assuming no issues with your setup/network etc), you can email the
webmaster by sending your email to "webmaster@X.X.X.X". Where
"X.X.X.X" is the IP address of the web page.

To find the IP Address of the webpage, run CMD and type
"ping YYYYYYY.ZZZ" where "YYYYYYYYYY" is the name of the website
and "ZZZ" is the domain name extension such as .com /.uk / .org etc.
For example "ping"
To Test The Audio Quality in Bluejeans:

If you are using a web browser type in the below:
If you are using the app, where it says "Enter Meeting ID"
Then type:
If you are using video conferencing equipment
Then type in:

To Connect H.323 Or SIP Based Room Systems
To A
Bluejeans Meeting.
Dial the IP address "" for H.323
or the FQDN "" for SIP on your Room System
to get the welcome Interactive Voice Response (IVR).
VESA Mount:

The Flat Display Mounting Interface (FDMI), also known as
VESA Mounting Interface Standard (MIS) or colloquially as
VESA mount, is a family of standards defined by the
Video Electronics Standards Association for mounting flat panel monitors,
televisions, and other displays to stands or wall mounts. It is implemented
on most modern flat panel monitors and televisions.


PurposeLarger Quantities Or Whole Units
PurposeSmaller Quantities Or Sub Units


IEC prefixRepresentations
Name / SymbolBase 2Base 1024ValueBase 10
kibi / Ki210102411024∼ 1.024×103
mebi / Mi220102421048576≈ 1.049×106
gibi / Gi230102431073741824≈ 1.074×109
tebi / Ti240102441.09951E+12≈ 1.100×1012
pebi / Pi250102451.1259E+15≈ 1.126×1015
exbi / Ei260102461.15292E+18≈ 1.153×1018
zebi / Zi270102471.18059E+21≈ 1.181×1021
yobi / Yi280102481.20893E+24≈ 1.209×1024


DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
BIT COUNT = 12 Bit
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
*With a 4 KB clusters
*With an 8 KB clusters
BIT COUNT = 16 Bit
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
*Without LFS
With LFS*

*Long File System
BIT COUNT = 32 Bit
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
BIT COUNT = 64 Bit
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
*With a 512 KB sector size
*With a 4 KB sector size

VFAT is an optional extension
for long file names, which can
work on top of any FAT file
system. Volumes using VFAT
long filenames can be read
also by operating systems
not supporting the
VFAT extension.
BIT COUNT = 64 Bit
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
BIT COUNT = 32 Bit
Using HFS
Using HFS+
Year developed: 2017
Max File Size: 2 EB


SDSecure Digital Card
Storage Capacity = 0 - 2 GB
SDHCSecure Digital High Capacity Card
Storage Capacity = 4 GB - 32 GB
SDXCSecure Digital Extended Capacity Card
Storage Capacity = 32 GB - 2 TB
SDUCSecure Digital Ultra Capacity Card
Storage Capacity = 2 TB - 128 TB
Megabits per second 1Mb/s = 0.125 MB/s Megabytes per second
Megabits per second 8 Mb/s = 1 MB/s Megabytes per second
Megabits per second 90 Mb/s = 11.25 MB/sMegabytes per second

For greater information on SD Cards see my page
What Do The Markings On An SD Card Mean


DecimalBinary (RGB)Hexadecimal
Black0, 0, 0#000000
Blue0, 0, 255#0000FF
Cyan0, 255, 255#00FFFF
Green0, 255, 0#00FF00
Magenta255, 0, 255#FF00FF
Red255, 0, 0#FF0000
White255, 255, 255#FFFFFF
Yellow255, 255, 0#FFFF00


appwiz.cplAdd Remove Programs
dsa.mscActive Directory
gpedit.cplGroup policy editor
inetcpl.cplOpen MS IE Internet Control Panel file
lusrmgr.mscLocal Users and Groups
msconfigWindows Configuration Manager
mstcsRemote Desktop Connection
ncpa.cplChange Adaptor Settings
services.mscServices snap-in (Foe MMC)
sysdm.cplSystem Properties
mmcMicrosoft Management Console


Chip SetA set of electronic components in an
integrated circuit known as a
"Data Flow Management System" that
manages the data flow between the
processor, memory and peripherals

BIOS is the program (in the form of firmware)
a computer's microprocessor uses to start
the computer system after it is powered on.
Also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS,
BIOS ROM or PC BIOS), the BIOS firmware is
used to perform hardware initialization during
the booting process (power-on startup), and to
provide runtime services for operating systems
and programs. The BIOS firmware comes pre
installed on a personal computer's system
board, and it is the first software to run when
powered on. The name originates from the
Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M
operating system in 1975. The BIOS originally
proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse
engineered by some companies (such as
Phoenix Technologies) looking to create
compatible systems. The interface of
that original system serves as a de facto

To understand the CMOS, we must first
understand the BIOS. The BIOS is the
program that starts a computer up and
the CMOS is where the BIOS stores the
date, time, and system configuration
details it needs to start the computer.
The CMOS is a type of memory technology,
but most people use the term to refer to
the chip that stores variable data for startup.
A CMOS consists of a pair of semiconductors
connected to a common secondary voltage
such that they operate in an opposite
(complimentary) fashion. Thus, when one
transistor is turned on, the other is turned
off, and vice versa.

Some of the advantages of CMOS:

High noise immunity.
Reduced complexity of the circuit.
Very low static power consumption.
A higher density of logic functions on a chip.


N-type (-) MOSFETs are used to implement logic
gates and other digital circuits. These nMOS
transistors operate by creating an inversion
layer in a p-type transistor body. This inversion
layer, called the n-channel, can conduct electrons
between n-type "source" and "drain" terminals.
The n-channel is created by applying voltage to
the third terminal, called the gate. Like other
MOSFETs, nMOS transistors have four modes of
operation: cut-off (or subthreshold), triode,
saturation (sometimes called active), and velocity

LDMOS is a planar double diffused MOSFET used
in amplifiers, including microwave power amplifiers,
RF power amplifiers and audio power amplifiers.
These transistors are often fabricated on p/p+
silicon epitaxial layers. The fabrication of LDMOS
devices mostly involves various ion implantation
and subsequent annealing cycles. As an example,
the drift region of this power MOSFET is fabricated
using up to three ion implantation sequences in
order to achieve the appropriate doping profile
needed to withstand high electric fields.

The silicon based RF LDMOS is the most widely
used RF power amplifier in mobile networks,
enabling the majority of the world's cellular voice
and data traffic. LDMOS devices are widely used in
RF power amplifiers for base stations as the
requirement is for high output power with a
corresponding drain to source breakdown voltage
usually above 60 volts. Compared to other devices
such as GaAs* FETs they show a lower maximum
power gain frequency.

*(Gallium Arsenide is a III-V direct band gap
semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure.
GaAs is used in the manufacture of devices such as
microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic
microwave integrated circuits, infrared light emitting
diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows.)
Numeric CoprocessorThe math coprocessor was an optional add-on for
the Intel 8086, 80386 and 80486 processors that
allowed computers to perform faster mathematical
calculations, increasing its overall performance.
IO ProcessorInput
NorthbridgeA northbridge or host bridge is one of the two chips
in the core logic chipset architecture on a PC
motherboard, the other being the southbridge.
Unlike the southbridge, the northbridge is connected
directly to the CPU via the front side bus and is thus
responsible for tasks that require the highest performance
SouthbridgeThe southbridge is one of the two chips in the core
logic chipset on a personal computer motherboard,
the other being the northbridge. The southbridge
typically implements the slower capabilities of the
motherboard in a northbridge / southbridge chipset
computer architecture


Abbreviation Meaning
VbbBase Supply Voltage
VeeEmitter Supply Voltage
VccCollector Supply Voltage


Voltage Common Collector
VddDrain Supply Voltage
VssSource Supply Voltage
VggFollowing the above convention, it should be "Gate".
However, as "Vgg" does not exist, instead we use
"Ground" (Gnd), "Common" or "0" (Zero) voltes.

JFET To BJTComparison
Gate, ( G )Base, ( B )
Drain, ( D )Collector, ( C )
Source, ( S )Emitter, ( E )
Gate Supply, ( VG )Base Supply, ( VB )
Drain Supply, ( VDD )Collector Supply, ( VCC )
Drain Current, ( ID )Collector Current, ( IC )


Positive Supply VoltageVcc / Vbb V+Vdd Vs+
Negative Supply VoltageVee V-Vss Vs-
GroundGnd (0)Gnd (0)


ICSIndustrial Control System

An ICS is an electronic control system
and associated instrumentation used
for industrial process control. Control
systems can range in size from a few
modular panel mounted controllers to
large interconnected and interactive
distributed control systems (DCS)
with many thousands of field connections.
Control systems receive data from remote
sensors measuring process variables (PV),
and compare the collected data with
desired setpoints (SP), and derive command
functions that are used to control a process
through the final control elements (FCEs),
such as control valves. Larger systems are
usually implemented by supervisory control
and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, or
DCS, and programmable logic controllers
(PLC), though SCADA and PLC systems are
scalable down to small systems with few
control loops. Such systems are extensively
used in industries such as chemical
processing, pulp and paper manufacture,
power generation, oil and gas processing,
and telecommunications.
ICIntegrated Circuit / Monolithic Integrated Circuit:

An IC or a microchip is a set of electronic circuits
on one small flat piece (or "chip") of
semiconductor material, usually silicon.
Large numbers of tiny MOSFETs (See MOSFET)
integrate into a small chip. This results in circuits
that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and
less expensive than those constructed of discrete
electronic components. The IC's mass production
capability, reliability, and building block approach
to integrated circuit design has ensured the rapid
adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs
using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in
virtually all electronic equipment and have
revolutionized the world of electronics.
Computers, mobile phones, and other digital
home appliances are now inextricable parts of the
structure of modern societies, made possible by
the small size and low cost of ICs such as modern
computer processors and microcontrollers.
I²C / I2C / IICInter-Integrated Circuit

It is pronounced as "eye-squared-C"

I²C is a synchronous, multi-master,
multi-slave, packet switched, single
ended, serial communication bus
invented in 1982 by Philips
Semiconductors. It is widely used for
attaching lower speed peripheral ICs
to processors and microcontrollers in
short distance, intra-board
ASICApplication Specific Integrated Circuit

ASIC is an integrated circuit (IC) chip customized
for a particular use, rather than intended for
general purpose use. For example, a chip
designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a
high efficiency bitcoin miner is an ASIC.
Application specific standard product (ASSP)
chips are intermediate between ASICs and
industry standard integrated circuits like the
7400 series or the 4000 series.
ASIC chips are typically fabricated using MOS
technology (See MOS), as MOS integrated circuit.
COBChip On Board

COB is a method of circuit board manufacturing
in which the integrated circuits or microprocessors
are wired, bonded directly to a printed circuit board,
and covered by a blob of epoxy. By eliminating the
packaging of individual semiconductor devices, the
completed product can be more compact, lighter,
and less costly. In some cases, COB construction
improves the operation of radio frequency systems
by reducing the inductance and capacitance of
integrated circuit leads. COB effectively merges
two levels of electronic packaging: level 1
(components) and level 2 (wiring boards), and
maybe referred to as "level 1.5". COBs containing
arrays of light emitting diodes have made LED
lighting more efficient. LED COBs include a layer
of sillicone containing yellow Ce:YAG phosphor
that encapsulates the LEDs and turns the blue
light of the LEDs into white light. They could be
compared with multi chip modules or hybrid
integrated circuits since all three can incorporate
multiple dies into a single unit. COB is widely used
in electronics and computing, identifiable by
"glop tops" often made of epoxy.
Glop TopGlop Top

Glop-top is a variant of conformal coating used in
COB assembly. It consists of a drop of specially
formulated epoxy or resin deposited over a
semiconductor chip and its wire bonds, to
provide mechanical support and exclude
contaminants such as fingerprint residues
which could disrupt circuit operation. It is most
commonly used in electronic toys and low end
nRF24 SeriesRF System On Chip Transceivers and Audio Streamer

The nRF24 Series includes the nRF24L,
nRF24AP2 and nRF2460 ICs. nRF24L ICs use
Nordic Semiconductor's Enhanced ShockBurst
protocol (ESB), enabling the implementation
of ultra low power and high performance
communication with low cost host
microcontrollers. The nRF24AP2 ICs are low
cost, high performance 2.4 GHz ISM single
chip connectivity devices with an
embedded ANT™ protocol stack.
The nRF2460 is a wireless mono audio
TTLTransistor Transistor Logic:

Transistor to transistor logic is a logic
family built from bipolar junction
transistors. Its name signifies that
transistors perform both the logic
function and the amplifying function,
as opposed to resistor transistor
logic or diode transistor logic.
RTLResistor Transistor Logic:

Resistor transistor logic is a class of digital
circuits built using resistors as the input
network and bipolar junction transistors
(BJTs) as switching devices. RTL is the
earliest class of transistorized digital logic
circuit used; other classes include diode
transistor logic (DTL) and transistor
transistor logic (TTL). RTL circuits were first
constructed with discrete components, but
in 1961 it became the first digital logic family
to be produced as a monolithic integrated
circuit. RTL integrated circuits were used in
the Apollo Guidance Computer, whose
design was begun in 1961 and which
first flew in 1966
TRLTransistor Resistor Logic:

DTLDiode Transistor Logic :

Diode transistor logic (DTL) is a class of digital
circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor
transistor logic. It is called so because the logic
gating function (e.g., AND) is performed by a
diode network and the amplifying function is
performed by a transistor
(in contrast with RTL and TTL).

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that
has two stable states and can be used to store
state information, a bistable multivibrator.
The circuit can be made to change state by
signals applied to one or more control inputs
and will have one or two outputs. It is the basic
storage element in sequential logic. Flip-flops
and latches are fundamental building blocks
of digital electronics systems used in computers,
communications, and many other types of systems.
UARTUniversal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

is a computer hardware device for asynchronous
serial communication in which the data format
and transmission speeds are configurable.
It sends data bits one by one, from the least
significant to the most significant, framed by start
and stop bits so that precise timing is handled by
the communication channel. The electric signaling
levels are handled by a driver circuit external to
the UART. Two common signal levels are RS-232,
a 12 volt system, and RS-485, a 5-volt system.
It was one of the earliest computer communication
devices, used to attach teletypewriters for an
operator console. It was also an early hardware
system for the Internet.
DSPDigital Signal Processing

Digital signal processing is the use of digital
processing, such as by computers or more
specialized digital signal processors, to
perform a wide variety of signal
processing operations.
VppPeak To Peak Voltage:

The peak value is the highest voltage that
the waveform will ever reach, like the peak
is the highest point on a mountain.
RMSRoot Mean Square:

The RMS value, is the effective value of the
total waveform. It is equal to the level of the
DC signal that would provide the same average
power as the periodic signal.
ESDElectrostatic Discharge:

A sudden flow of electricity between two
electrically charged objects, an ESD occurs
when differently charged objects are brought
close together or when the dielectric between
them breaks down, often creating a visible spark.
GFIC / Trip SwitchGround Fault Circuit Interrupter:

Electrical plugs with incorporated RCD are
sometimes installed on appliances that might
be considered to pose a particular safety hazard,
for example, long extension leads, which might
be used outdoors, or garden equipment or hair
dryers, which may be used near a bath or sink.
Occasionally an in-line RCD may be used to serve
a similar function to one in a plug. By putting the
RCD in the extension lead, protection is provided
at whatever outlet is used even if the building has
old wiring, such as knob and tube, or wiring that
does not contain a grounding conductor. The in
line RCD can also have a lower tripping threshold
than the building to further improve safety for a
specific electrical device. In North America, GFI
receptacles can be used in cases where there is
no grounding conductor, but they must be
labeled as "no equipment ground". Ungrounded
GFI receptacle will trip using the built in "test"
button, but will not trip using a GFI test plug,
because the plug tests by passing a small current
from line to the non existent ground.
It is worth noting that despite this, only one GFCI
receptacle at the beginning of each circuit is
necessary to protect downstream receptacles.
There does not appear to be a risk of using multiple
GFI receptacles on the same circuit,
though it is considered redundant. In Europe, RCDs
can fit on the same DIN rail as the miniature circuit
breakers; much like in miniature circuit breakers,
the busbar arrangements in consumer units and
distribution boards provides protection for
anything downstream.
RCBOResidual Current Circuit Breaker With Overcurrent Protection:

A pure RCD will detect an imbalance in the
currents of the supply and return conductors of
a circuit. But it cannot protect against overload
or short circuits like a fuse or a miniature circuit
breaker (MCB) does (except for the special case
of a short circuit from live to ground, not live
to neutral). However, an RCD and an MCB often
come integrated in the same device, thus being
able to detect both supply imbalance and
overload current. Such a device is called:

RCBO = in Europe and Australia
GFCI = in USA and Canada
RCDResidual Current Device:

RCCBResidual Current Circuit Breaker:

MCBMiniature Circuit Breaker:

VDP / VDC (Usually a Chip)Video Display Processor / Controller:

A video display controller or VDC AKA
"Display Engine" or "Display Interface", is an
integrated circuit that is the main component
in a video signal generator. A device responsible
for the production of TV video signals or in a
computer or a computer games system. Some
VDCs also generate an audio signal, but that is not
their main function. VDCs were used in the home
computers of the 1980s and also in some early
video picture systems.

Within the MSX users community, the VDP means
Video Display Processor, it's the term used for the
video chip built into the MSX system. The below
video chips are used on the MSX system:

Texas Instruments TMS9918 family of VDP chips
Toshiba T6950
Yamaha YM2220
Yamaha V9938
Yamaha V9958
Yamaha V9990

Generally, the VDP is a separate chip, but a few
MSX1 machines have the Toshiba T6950
integrated in the Toshiba T7937 MSX-Engine.

Besides these VDP's, there is also a
Video Display Controller (VDC), the Yamaha
99C37-F used only in the NTT Captain
Multi Station computer
BGA (Chip)Ball Grid Array / Ball Gate Array:

A type of surface mounted packaging (SMD)
used for integrated circuits.BGAs are used to
permanently mount devices such as
microprocessors. A BGA can provide more
interconnection pins than a standard dual in line
(DIP)or flat package. The whole bottom surface of
the device can be used, instead of just the
perimeter. The traces connecting the package's
leads to the wires or balls, which connect the die
to the package are also shorter than with a
perimeter only type, leading to better
performance at high speeds.
PGA (Chip)Pin Grid Array:

A PGA is a type of integrated circuit (IC)
packaging. In a PGA the package is square
or rectangular, and the pins are arranged
in a regular array on the underside of the
package. The pins are commonly spaced
2.54 mm (0.1") apart, and may or may not
cover the entire underside of the package.
PGAs are often mounted on printed circuit
boards using the through hole method or
inserted into a socket. PGAs allow for
more pins per integrated circuit than older
packages, such as dual in line package (DIP).

FPGA (Chip)Field Programmable Gate Array:

FPGA is an integrated circuit (IC) designed
to be configured by a customer or a
designer after manufacturing, hence the
term field programmable. FPGA
configuration is generally specified using a
hardware description language (HDL),
similar to that used for an application
specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Circuit
diagrams were previously used to specify
the configuration, but this is increasingly
rare due to the advent of electronic design
automation tools. FPGAs contain an array
of programmable logic blocks, and a
hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects
allowing blocks to be wired together. Logic
blocks can be configured to perform complex
combinational functions, or act as simple logic
gates like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, logic
blocks also include memory elements, which
may be simple flip flops or more complete
blocks of memory. Many FPGAs can be
reprogrammed to implement different logic
functions, allowing flexible reconfigurable
computing as performed in computer
software. FPGAs have a remarkable role in
embedded system development due to their
capability to start system software (SW)
development simultaneously with hardware
(HW), enable system performance simulations
at a very early phase of the development, and
allow various system partitioning (SW and HW)
trials and iterations before final freezing
of the system architecture. The FPGA industry
sprouted from programmable read only
memory (PROM) and programmable logic
devices (PLDs). PROMs and PLDs both had the
option of being programmed in batches in a
factory or in the field (field programmable).
However, programmable logic was hard wired
between logic gates.
PLDProgrammable Logic Device

A programmable logic device (PLD) is an
electronic component used to build
reconfigurable digital circuits. Unlike
integrated circuits (IC) which consist of
logic gates and have a fixed function, a
PLD has an undefined function at the
time of manufacture. Before the PLD
can be used in a circuit it must be
programmed (reconfigured) by using
aspecialized program.

GAL = Generic Array Logic
PAL = Programmable Array Logic
PLA = Programmable Logic Array
FPGA = Field Programmable Gate Array
CPLDs = Complex Programmable Logic Device
EPLDs = Erasable Programmable Logic Device
ULAUncommitted Logic Arrays

A ULA is an approach to the design and
manufacture of application-specific
integrated circuits (ASICs) using a
prefabricated chip with components that
are later interconnected into logic devices
(e.g. NAND gates, flip-flops, etc.) according
to a custom order by adding metal
interconnect layers in the factory. It was
popular during the upheaval in the
semiconductor industry in the 1980s and
its usage declined by end of 1990s. Similar
technologies have also been employed to
design and manufacture analog,
analog-digital, and structured arrays, but,
in general, these are not called gate arrays.
Gate arrays have also been known as
uncommitted logic arrays (ULAs), which did
also offer linear circuit functions, and
semi-custom chips.
SID (Chip)Sound Interface Device:

The SID is a sound chip used primarily in the
VC 10, C64 and C128 and now a number of
sound related project kits etc. The chip
combines analogue and digital circuitry, that
cannot be emulated with 100% fidelity even
today. The intention of its designer (Bob Yannes)
was to implement a real subtractive synthesis chip,
totally different from all other home computers
sound devices of its time. The SID can be
programmed in BASIC or machine language,
using a machine language monitor or an
assembler package e.g. Merlin or the
Commodore Assembler, etc.
DWPDDrive Writes Per Day

DWPD measures how many times you could
overwrite the drive’s entire size each day of
its life. For example, if a drive is 200 GB and its
warranty period is 5 years. If its DWPD is 1, that
means you can write 200 GB (its size, one time)
into it every single day for the next five years.
If you multiply that out, that’s 200 GB per day
× 365 days/year × 5 years = 365 TB of
cumulative writes before you may need to
replace it.
TBWTerabytes Written

TBW directly measures how much you can write
cumulatively into the drive over its lifetime.
This includes DWPD calculation (see above) in the
measurement. For example, if a drive is rated for
365 TBW, you can write 365 TB into it before you
may need to replace it. If its warranty period is 5
years, that works out to 365 TB ÷ (5 years ×
365 days/year) = 200 GB of writes per day. If a
drive is 200 GB in size, that’s equivalent to
1 DWPD. Correspondingly, if a drive is rated for
3.65 PBW = 3,650 TBW, that works out to
2 TB of writes per day, or 10 DWPD.
If the drive’s size and the warranty period are
known, you can always get from DWPD to TBW
or vice versa with the above calculations.
RTL (RTL SDR) (Chip set)Realtek L2832U:

The Realtek RTL2832U chipset was a popular
choice for digital video broadcast (DVB-T)
receivers, whose original purpose was to
receive video. It was discovered that these
could be hacked and turned into wideband
SDR receivers.
SDR (RTL SDR)Software Defined Radio:

A radio communication system where
components that have been traditionally
implemented in hardware
(e.g. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators /
demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead
implemented by means of software on a
computer, tablet, mobile phone or
embedded system.
SWRStanding Wave Ratio:

In the field of radio engineering and
telecommunications, SWR is a measure of
impedance matching of loads to the
characteristic impedance of a transmission
line or waveguide.
SMA ConnectorSubMiniature Version A

SMA connectors are semi precision coaxial
RF connectors that were developed in the
1960s as a minimal connector interface for
coaxial cable with a screw type couplin
mechanism. The connector has a 50 Ω
impedance. SMA was originally designed for
use from DC (0 Hz) to 12 GHz, however this
has been extended over time and variants
are available to 18 GHz and 26.5 GHz.
There are also mechanically compatible
connectors such as the K-connector which
operate up to 40 GHz. The SMA connector
is most commonly used in microwave
systems, hand held radio and mobile
telephone antennas and, more recently,
with WiFi antenna systems and USB software
defined radio dongles. It is also commonly
used in radio astronomy, particularly at
higher frequencies (5 GHz+).
BFOBeat Frequency Oscillator

In a radio receiver a BFO AKA a
beat frequency oscillator or BFO is a
dedicated oscillator used to create an audio
frequency signal from Morse code
radiotelegraphy (CW) transmissions to make
them audible. The signal from the BFO is
mixed with the received signal to create a
heterodyne or beat frequency which is heard
as a tone in the speaker. BFOs are also used
to demodulate single-sideband (SSB) signals,
making them intelligible, by essentially
restoring the carrier that was suppressed at
the transmitter. BFOs are sometimes included
in communications receivers designed for
short wave listeners; they are almost always
found in communication receivers for
amateur radio, which often receive CW
and SSB signals.

heter- + -dyne,
A modification of Greek dynamis power

A heterodyne is a signal frequency that is
created by combining or mixing two other
frequencies using a signal processing
technique called heterodyning.
Heterodyning is used to shift one frequency
range into another, new frequency range,
and is also involved in the processes of
modulation and demodulation.
The two input frequencies are combined
in a nonlinear signal processing device
such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or
diode, usually called a mixer
SuperhetSuperheterodyne Receiver

A superheterodyne receiver often
shortened to superhet, is a type of radio
receiver that uses frequency mixing to
convert a received signal to a fixed
intermediate frequency (IF) which can be
more conveniently processed than the
original carrier frequency. Virtually all
modern radio receivers use the
superheterodyne principle.
RDFRadio Direction Finding

RDF is the measurement of the direction from
which a received signal was transmitted.
This can refer to radio or other forms of
wireless communication, including radar signals
detection and monitoring (ELINT/ESM).
By combining the direction information from two
or more suitably spaced receivers
(or a single mobile receiver), the source of a
transmission may be located via triangulation.
Radio direction finding is used in the navigation
of ships and aircraft, to locate emergency
transmitters for search and rescue, for tracking
wildlife, and to locate illegal or interfering
RADAFRadio Detection And Ranging

Radar is a detection system that uses radio
waves to determine the distance (range),
angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used
to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided
missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations,
and terrain. A radar system consists of a
transmitter producing electromagnetic waves
in the radio or microwaves domain,
a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna
(often the same antenna is used for
transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and
processor to determine the properties of the
object(s). Radio waves (pulsed or continuous)
from the transmitter reflect off the object and
return to the receiver, giving information about
the object's location and speed.
LIDA Light Detection And Ranging
- AKA -
Laser Imaging Detection And Ranging

Lidar is a method for determining ranges
(variable distance) by targeting an object with a
laser and measuring the time for the reflected
light to return to the receiver. Lidar can also be
used to make digital 3-D representations of
areas on the earth's surface and ocean floor,
due to differences in laser return times, and by
varying laser wavelengths. It has terrestrial,
airborne, and mobile applications. Lidar is an
acronym of "light detection and ranging" or
"laser imaging, detection, and ranging", lidar is
often called 3D laser scanning, a special
combination of a 3D scanning and laser
scanning. Lidar is commonly used to make high
resolution maps, with applications in surveying,
geodesy, geomatics, archaeology, geography,
geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry,
atmospheric physics, laser guidance, airborne
laser swath mapping (ALSM), and laser altimetry.
The technology is also used in control and
navigation for some autonomous cars and for
he helicopter Ingenuity on its record setting flights
over the terrain of Mars.
FASORFrequency Addition Source Of Optical Radiation

The acronym FASOR is used for a certain type of
guide star laser deployed at US Air Force
Research Laboratory facilities SOR and AMOS.
The laser light is produced in a sum frequency
generation process from two solid state laser
sources that operate at different wavelengths.
The frequencies of the sources add directly to
a summed frequency. Thus, if the source
wavelengths are λ1 and λ2, the resulting
wavelength is λ= (1/λ1 + 1/λ2) -1.
Application, the FASOR is used for laser guide
star experiments. It is tuned to the D2a
hyperfine component of the sodium D line and
used to excite sodium atoms in the mesospheric
upper atmosphere. The FASOR consists of two
single frequency injection locked Nd:YAG lasers
close to 1064 and 1319 nm that are both
resonant in a cavity containing a lithium triborate
(LBO) crystal, which sums the frequencies
yielding 589.159 nm light.
IFIntermediate Frequency

The use of IF coils and interstage coupling
transformers were a major feature of vacuum
tube based receivers. Both served the dual
purpose of impedance matching and frequency
selectivity. IF amplifier transformers are simply
tunable inductors, usually with an integral fixed
capacitor, and are typically used inside cheaper
transistor radios. Mostly they are used as
"synchronously tuned filters" because each stage
is coupled by an active device.
PIMPassive Intermodulation

PIM stands for “passive intermodulation.” It
represents the intermodulation products
generated when two or more signals transit
through a passive device with nonlinear
properties. PIM is a type of self interference
signal distortion that has become increasingly
important to detect and mitigate since LTE and
Wi-Fi networks, which are now being deployed
in great numbers, are particularly sensitive to it.
PIM is a growing issue for cellular network
operators. PIM issues may occur as existing
equipment ages, when co-locating new carriers, or
when installing new equipment. PIM is a particular
issue when overlaying (diplexing) new carriers into
old antenna runs. PIM can create interference that
will reduce a cell’s receive sensitivity or even block
calls. This interference can affect both the cell that
creates it, as well as other nearby receivers. PIM
is created by high transmitter power so on site PIM
testing needs to be done at or above the original
transmitter power levels to make sure that the test
reveals any PIM issues.

Nitis, stems from the Latin word “nitere”,
meaning to shine. However nit is often used
in place of candela (candela, is the SI base
unit of luminous intensity; that is, luminous
power per unit solid angle emitted by a point
light source in a particular direction.) to avoid
simply sound liking you are measuring
brightness based on candles, even though
technically you are. So, 1x nit is the amount of
light that spreads over a square meter,
therefore, a “nit” is an alternative way of
describing a brightness of 1cd/m2
(candela per square meter). Nits are a useful
measure that indicates how easily we may see
a mobile phone or laptop screens, outdoors
in full natural daylight. The sun at noon is
rated at 1.6 billion nits. Although LCD screens
range from 200 to 500 nits, our outdated TV
standard is 100 nits, which was set in the days
when rare earth phosphors were used in
cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Various high dynamic
range (HDR) technologies, such as Dolby Vision,
yield 4,000 nits and above on LCD TVs. See stilb,
candela, Dolby HDR, and LED TV.
WEEEWaste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive
(WEEE Directive) is the European Community
Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and
electronic equipment (WEEE) which, together
with the RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU (See below),
became European Law in February 2003.
The WEEE Directive set collection, recycling and
recovery targets for all types of electrical goods,
with a minimum rate of 4 kilograms (9 lb) per
head of population per annum recovered for
recycling by 2009. The RoHS Directive set
restrictions upon European manufacturers as
to the material content of new electronic
equipment placed on the market.
ROHSRestriction Of Hazardous Substances Directive

Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive
2002/95/EC (RoHS 1), short for Directive on
the restriction of the use of certain hazardous
substances in electrical and electronic
equipment was adopted in February 2003 by
the European Union. The RoHS 1 directive
took effect on 1 July 2006, and is required to
be enforced and became law in each
member state. This directive restricts
(with exceptions) the use of hazardous
materials in the manufacture of various
types of electronic and electrical equipment.
It is closely linked with the Waste Electrical
and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE)
2002/96/EC (now superseded) which sets
collection, recycling and recovery targets for
electrical goods and is part of a legislative
initiative to solve the problem of huge
amounts of toxic electronic waste.
The RoHS Directive set restrictions upon
European manufacturers as to the
material content of new electronic
equipment placed on the market.
ODBIIOn Board Diagnostics 2

OBD is an automotive term referring to a
vehicle's self diagnostic and reporting
capability. OBD systems give the vehicle
owner or repair technician access to the
status of the various vehicle sub systems.
The amount of diagnostic information
available via OBD has varied widely since its
introduction in the early 1980s versions of on
board vehicle computers. Early versions of
OBD would simply illuminate a malfunction
indicator light or "idiot light" if a problem was
detected but would not provide any
information as to the nature of the problem.
Modern OBD implementations use a
standardized digital communications port to
provide real time data in addition to a
standardized series of diagnostic trouble
codes (DTCs)
, which allow a person to
rapidly identify and remedy malfunctions
within the vehicle.


dBPower RatioAmplitude Ratio
63.981 ≈ 41.995 ≈ 2
31.995 ≈ 21.413 ≈ √2
-30.501 ≈ ​1⁄20.708 ≈ √​1⁄2
-60.251 ≈ ​1⁄40.501 ≈ ​1⁄2

An example scale showing power ratios x, amplitude ratios √x, and dB
equivalents 10 log10 x. The decibel (symbol: dB) is a relative unit of
measurement corresponding to one tenth of a bel (B).

dBm To Watt, Volt RMS :

dBmWattVolt (50Ω)Volt (75Ω)
-1400.01 fW22.361 nV27.386 nV
-1390.013 fW25.089 nV30.728 nV
-1380.016 fW28.15 nV34.477 nV
-1370.02 fW31.585 nV38.684 nV
-1360.025 fW35.439 nV43.404 nV
-1350.032 fW39.764 nV48.7 nV
-1340.04 fW44.615 nV54.643 nV
-1330.05 fW50.059 nV61.31 nV
-1320.063 fW56.167 nV68.791 nV
-1310.079 fW63.021 nV77.185 nV
-1300.1 fW70.711 nV86.603 nV
-1290.126 fW79.339 nV97.17 nV
-1280.158 fW89.019 nV109.026 nV
-1270.2 fW99.881 nV122.329 nV
-1260.251 fW112.069 nV137.256 nV
-1250.316 fW125.743 nV154.004 nV
-1240.398 fW141.089 nV172.795 nV
-1230.501 fW158.301 nV193.879 nV
-1220.631 fW177.617 nV217.536 nV
-1210.794 fW199.29 nV244.079 nV
-1201 fW223.607 nV273.861 nV
-1191.259 fW250.891 nV307.277 nV
-1181.585 fW281.504 nV344.771 nV
-1171.995 fW315.853 nV386.839 nV
-1162.512 fW354.393 nV434.041 nV
-1153.162 fW397.635 nV487.002 nV
-1143.981 fW446.154 nV546.425 nV
-1135.012 fW500.593 nV613.099 nV
-1126.31 fW561.675 nV687.908 nV
-1117.943 fW630.21 nV771.846 nV
-11010 fW707.107 nV866.025 nV
-10912.589 fW793.387 nV971.696 nV
-10815.849 fW890.195 nV1.09 ?V
-10719.953 fW998.815 nV1.223 ?V
-10625.119 fW1.121 ?V1.373 ?V
-10531.623 fW1.257 ?V1.54 ?V
-10439.811 fW1.411 ?V1.728 ?V
-10350.119 fW1.583 ?V1.939 ?V
-10263.096 fW1.776 ?V2.175 ?V
-10179.433 fW1.993 ?V2.441 ?V
-100100 fW2.236 ?V2.739 ?V
-99125.893 fW2.509 ?V3.073 ?V
-98158.489 fW2.815 ?V3.448 ?V
-97199.526 fW3.159 ?V3.868 ?V
-96251.189 fW3.544 ?V4.34 ?V
-95316.228 fW3.976 ?V4.87 ?V
-94398.107 fW4.462 ?V5.464 ?V
-93501.187 fW5.006 ?V6.131 ?V
-92630.957 fW5.617 ?V6.879 ?V
-91794.328 fW6.302 ?V7.718 ?V
-901 pW7.071 ?V8.66 ?V
-891.259 pW7.934 ?V9.717 ?V
-881.585 pW8.902 ?V10.903 ?V
-871.995 pW9.988 ?V12.233 ?V
-862.512 pW11.207 ?V13.726 ?V
-853.162 pW12.574 ?V15.4 ?V
-843.981 pW14.109 ?V17.279 ?V
-835.012 pW15.83 ?V19.388 ?V
-826.31 pW17.762 ?V21.754 ?V
-817.943 pW19.929 ?V24.408 ?V
-8010 pW22.361 ?V27.386 ?V
-7912.589 pW25.089 ?V30.728 ?V
-7815.849 pW28.15 ?V34.477 ?V
-7719.953 pW31.585 ?V38.684 ?V
-7625.119 pW35.439 ?V43.404 ?V
-7531.623 pW39.764 ?V48.7 ?V
-7439.811pW44.615 ?V54.643 ?V
-7350.119 pW50.059 ?V61.31 ?V
-7263.096 pW56.167 ?V68.791 ?V
-7179.433 pW63.021 ?V77.185 ?V
-70100 pW70.711 ?V86.603 ?V
-69125.893 pW79.339 ?V97.17 ?V
-68158.489 pW89.019 ?V109.026 ?V
-67199.526 pW99.881 ?V122.329 ?V
-66251.189 fW112.069 ?V137.256 ?V
-65316.228 fW125.743 ?V154.004 ?V
-64398.107 fW141.086 ?V172.795 ?V
-63501.187 pW158.301 ?V193.879 ?V
-62630.957 pW177.617 ?V217.536 ?V
-61794.328 pW199.29 ?V244.079 ?V
-601 nW223.607 ?V273.861 ?V
-591.259 nW250.891 ?V307.277 ?V
-581.585 nW281.504 ?V344.771 ?V
-571.995 nW315.853 ?V386.839 ?V
-5623512 nW354.393 ?V434.041 ?V
-553.162 nW397.635 ?V487.002 ?V
-543.981nW446.154 ?V546.425 ?V
-535.012 nW500.593 ?V613.099 ?V
-526.31 nW561.675 ?V687.908 ?V
-517.943 nW630.21 ?V771.846 ?V
-5010 nW707.107 ?V866.025 ?V
-4912.589 nW793.387 ?V971.696 ?V
-4815.849 nW890.195 ?V1.09 mV
-4719.953 nW998.815 ?V1.223 mV
-4625.119 nW1.121 mV1.373 mV
-4531.623 W1.257 mV1.54 mV
-4439.811 nW1.411 mV1.728 mV
-4350.119 nW1.583 mV1.939 mV
-4263.096 nW1.776 mV2.175 mV
-4179.433 nW1.993 mV2.441 mV
-40100 nW2.236 mV2.739 mV
-39125.893 nW2.509 mV3.073 mV
-38158.489 nW2.815 mV3.448 mV
-37199.526 nW3.159 mV3.868 mV
-36251.189 nW3.544 mV4.34 mV
-35316.228 nW3.976 mV4.87 mV
-34398.107 nW4.462 mV5.464 mV
-33501.187 nW5.006 mV6.131 mV
-32630.957 nW5.617 mV6.879 mV
-31794.328 nW6.302 mV7.718 mV
-301 ?W7.071 mV8.66 mV
-291.259 ?W7.934 mV9.717 mV
-281.585 ?W8.902 mV10.903 mV
-271.995 ?W9.988 mV12.233 mV
-262.512 ?W11.207 mV13.726 mV
-253.162 ?W12.574 mV15.4 mV
-243.981 ?W14.109 mV17.279 mV
-235.012 ?W15.83 mV19.388 mV
-226.31 ?W17.762 mV21.754 mV
-217.943 ?W19.929 mV24.408 mV
-2010 ?W22.361 mV27.386 mV
-1912.589 ?W25.089 mV30.728 mV
-1815.849 ?W28.15 mV34.477 mV
-1719.953 ?W31.585 mV38.684 mV
-1625.119 ?W35.439 mV43.404 mV
-1531.623 ?W39.764 mV48.7 mV
-1439.811 ?W44.615 mV54.643 mV
-1350.119 ?W50.059 mV61.31 mV
-1263.096 ?W56.167 mV68.791 mV
-1179.433 ?W63.021 mV77.185 mV
-10100 ?W70.711 mV86.603 mV
-9125.893 ?W79.339 mV97.17 mV
-8158.489 ?W89.019 mV109.026 mV
-7199.526 ?W99.881 mV122.329 mV
-6251.189 ?W112.069 mV137.256 mV
-5316.228 ?W125.743 mV154.004 mV
-4398.107 ?W141.086 mV172.795 mV
-3501.187 ?W158.301 mV193.879 mV
-2630.957 ?W177.617 mV217.536 mV
-1794.328 ?W199.29 mV244.079 mV
01 mW223.607 mV273.861 mV
11.259 mW250.891 mV307.277 mV
21.585 mW281.504 mV344.771 mV
31.995 W315.853 mV386.839 mV
42.512 mW354.393 mV434.041 mV
53.162 mW397.635 mV487.002 mV
63.981 mW446.154 mV0.546 V
75.012 mW0.501 V0.613 V
86.31 mW0.562 V0.688 V
97.943 mW0.63 V0.772 V
1010 mW0.707 V0.866 V
1112.589 mW0.793 V0.972 V
1215.849 mW0.89 V1.09 V
1319.953 mW0.999 V1.223 V
1425.119 mW1.121 V1.373 V
1531.623 mW1.257 V1.54 V
1639.811 mW1.411 V1.728 V
1750.119 mW1.583 V1.939 V
1863.096 mW1.776 V2.175 V
1979.433 mW1.993 V2.441 V
20100 mW2.236 V2.793 V
21125.893 mW2.509 V3.073 V
22158.489 mW2.815 V3.448 V
23199.526 mW3.159 V3.868 V
24251.189 mW3.544 V4.34 V
25316.228 mW3.976 V4.87 V
26398.107 mW4.462 V5.464 V
270.501 W5.006 V6.131 V
280.631 W5.617 V6.879 V
290.794 W6.302 V7.718 V
301 W7.071 V8.66 V
311.259 W7.934 V9.717 V
321.585 W8.902 V10.903 V
331.995 W9.988 V12.233 V
342.512 W11.207 V13.726 V
353.162 W12.574 V15.4 V
363.981 W14.109 V17.279 V
375.012 W15.83 V19.388 V
386.31 W17.762 V21.754 V
397.943 W19.929 V24.408 V
4010 W22.361 V27.386 V
4112.589 W25.089 V30.728 V
4215.849 W28.15 V34.477 V
4319.953 W31.585 V38.684 V
4425.119 W35.439 V43.404 V
4531.623 W39.764 V48.7 V
4639.811 W44.615 V54.643 V
4750.119 W50.059 V61.31 V
4863.096 W56.167 V68.791 V
4979.433 W63.021 V77.185 V
50100 W70.711 V86.603 V
51125.893 W79.339 V97.17 V
52158.489 W89.019 V109.026 V
53199.526 W99.881 V122.329 V
54251.189 W112.069 V137.256 V
55316.228 W125.743 V154.004 V
56398.107 W141.086 V172.795 V
57501.187 W158.301 V193.879 V
58630.957 W177.617 V217.536 V
59794.328 W199.29 V244.079 V
601 kW223.607 V273.861 V
611.259 kW250.891 V307.277 V
621.585 kW281.504 V344.771 V
631.995 kW315.853 V386.839 V
642.512 kW354.393 V434.041 V
653.162 kW397.635 V487.002 V
663.981 kW446.154 V546.425 V
675.012 kW500.593 V613.099 V
686.31 kW561.675 V687.908 V
697.943 kW630.21 V0.772 kV
7010 kW0.707 kV0.866 kV
7112.589 kW0.793 kV0.972 V
7215.849 kW0.89 kV1.09 kV
7319.953 kW0.999 kV1.223 kV
7425.119 kW1.121 kV1.373 kV
7531.623 kW1.257 kV1.54 kV
7639.811 kW1.411 kV1.728 kV
7750.119 kW1.583 kV1.939 kV
7863.096 kW1.776 kV2.175 kV
7979.433 kW1.993 kV2.441 kV
80100 kW2.236 kV2.739 kV
81125.893 kW2.509 kV3.073 kV
82158.489 kW2.815 kV3.448 kV
83199.526 kW3.159 kV3.868 kV
84251.189 kW3.544 kV4.34 kV
85316.228 kW3.976 kV4.87 kV
86398.107 kW4.462 kV5.464 kV
87501.187 kW5.006 kV6.131 kV
88630.957 kW5.617 kV6.879 kV
89794.328 kW6.302 kV7.718 kV
901 MW7.071 kV8.66 kV
911.529 MW7.934 kV9.717 kV
921.585 MW8.902 kV10.903 kV
931.995 MW9.988 kV12.233 kV
942.512 MW11.207 kV13.726 kV
953.162 MW12.574 kV15.4 kV
963.981 W14.109 kV17.279 kV
975.012 MW15.83 kV19.388 kV
986.31 MW17.762 kV21.754 kV
997.943 MW19.929 kV24.408 kV
10010 MW22.361 kV27.386 kV
10112.589 MW25.089 kV30.728 kV
10215.849 MW28.15 kV34.477 kV
10319.953 MW31.585 kV38.684 kV
10425.119 MW35.439 kV43.404 kV
10531.623 MW39.764 kV48.7 kV
10639.811 MW44.615 kV54.643 kV
10750.119 MW50.059 kV61.31 kV
10863.096 MW56.167 kV68.791 kV
10979.433 MW63.021 kV77.185 kV
110100 MW70.711 kV86.603 kV
111125.893 MW79.339 kV97.17 kV
112158.489 MW89.019 V109.026 kV
113199.526 MW99.881 kV122.329 kV
114251.189 MW112.069 kV137.256 kV
115316.228 MW125.743 kV154.004 kV
116398.107 MW141.086 kV172.795 kV
117501.187 MW158.301 kV193.879 kV
118630.957 MW177.617 kV217.536 kV
119794.328 MW199.29 kV244.079 kV
1201000 MW223.607 kV273.861 kV

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