Best Free Tools For IT Professionals And Sys Admin Engineers

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APPLICATIONS / UTILITIES :


NB: Hover mouse over the text for a description:


3uTools - (An All In One Tool For iOS Devices)

7-zip
AccessChk
Adobe Acrobat Reader DC - (Free PDF Reader)
AOMEI Backupper Standard
Audacity (Wave Table Music Editor)
Autoruns
AdwCleaner
Balena Etcher
Brutus Password Cracker (For Penetration Testing Only)
CPU-Z
Ryzen DRAM Calculator Tool (Helpful With XMP)
Easy2Boot
ExifTool
FileOpen Plug-in
FileZilla (Client)
FileZilla (Server)
Hard Disk Sentinel - Windows
Hard Disk Sentinel - Linux Edition
Hashtab
HWMONITOR
iMazing
Lazesoft (Data recovery)
Lazesoft (Disk Image & Clone)
Lazesoft (Recovery Suite - Password recovery)
Lazesoft (Windows Recovery)
Lightshot
Mouse Without Borders
NirSoft - AppCrashView
NirSoft - BlueScreenView
NirSoft - NK2Edit
NirSoft - WhatIsHang
NirSoft - WinCrashReport
Nitro - (Free PDF Reader & Editer )
Notepad ++
NTPWEdit
Omni - DiskSweeper
Omni - Presence
Omni - Web
PDFsam Basic (Split, Merge, Mix, Rotate & extract PDFs)
Photopea (Online)
PowerShell ISE and its Script Browser and Script Analyzer Add-Ons
Process Explorer
Process Hacker
Process Monitor
Pro Photo Tools (Microsoft)
Revo Uninstaller
Robocopy
RSAT Tools for Windows 10
Rufus
Search Everting AKA Everting
SD Card Formatter (Type 1)
SMARTReporter Lite (For HDDs)
System Monitor (Sysmon)
Sysinternals Suite (Tools From)
Team Viewer
TestDisk (Data Recovery)
TransMac (Tools To Repair Apple Devices On Windows)
USB Webserver (Apache - MySQL - PHP - phpMyAdmin)
Wavepad (Wave Table Music Editor)
Wox
Xodo (Free PDF Editor)
Zadig - Installs Generic USB Drivers For Bespoke Devices


ANTI VIRUS / END POINT PROTECTION :


NB: Hover mouse over the text for a description:


Avast Antivirus

AVG Antivirus
Bit Defender - Page 01
Bit Defender - Page 02
MalwareBytes
Sophos
VirusTotal


EMAIL :


Email - Checker - Blacklist (Realtime Blacklist, DNSBL, RBL) (01)
Email - Checker - Domain Blacklist
Email - Checker - Header Analyzer
Email - Checker - HTML Code To Email For Testing (For Devs)
Email - Checker - Server Test
Email - Checker - Tutorial - How To Copy The Email Header From An Email.
Email - Checker - Verifier (Realtime Blacklist, DNSBL, RBL) (02)
Email - Checker - Verifier (Realtime Blacklist, DNSBL, RBL) (03)




EDUCATION / TEACHING / TRAINING :



Cisco Packet Tracer
Emupedia (Online)
GNS3
Learn Powershell In A Month Of Lunches
Windows 93 (Online)



FREE VIDEO CONFERENCING & CALLING :



Google Meet's (Free With A Free Google Account)
GoToMeeting's (Free 14 Day Trial)
Teams (Free With A Free Microsoft Account)
Viber (Free With A Free Viber Account)
Zoom (Free With A Free Zoom Account)



VIDEO CONFERENCING COMPANION SOFTWARE:



OBS Studio - (Live Streaming, Video & Screen Recording)
XSplit - VCam - (Blur Background Without Green Screen.)



ONLINE HOSTING :



DropBox (2 GB For Free - Free With A Free DropBox Account)
Google Drive (15 GB For Free - Free With A Free Google Account)
MEGA (15 GB For Free - Free With A Free MEGA Account)
OneDrive (5 GB For Free - Free With A Free Microsoft Account)
Zoho Docs (5 GB For Free - Free With A Free Zoho Account)


Rclone (The Thired Part Tool, Mentioned above)

NETWORKING TOOLS :


Advanced IP Scanner
Angry IP Scanner
Ansible
Convert Base-10 To IP
Convert HEX To RGB Online (Site 01)
Convert HEX To RGB Online (Site 02)
Convert HEX To RGB Online (Site 03)
Cygwin
DNS Checker
Draw.io (AKA) Diagrams.net
HyperTerm (ORIGINAL) (DOES ANYONE HAVE A LINK, PLEASE?)
HyperTerm (PRIVET EDITION)
IDN (Native to Punycode) Conversion (Convert Unicode to ASCII)
IDN (Punycode to Native) Conversion (Convert Unicode to ASCII)
IP Address Location (Online)
IPerf (Or) IPerf3 (Network Performance Online)
Is It Down Right Now? (Website Status Checker)
Message Analyzer (Microsoft)
Nagios
Netwrix Account Lockout Examiner (Windows AD)
Notepad++
Nmap (And) Zenmap
NTOPNG
Ping (Online)
Paessler SNMP Tester
PuTTy
Real-Time NetFlow Analyzer
Server - Kiwi Syslog Server
Server - SolarWinds SFTP/SCP
Server - SolarWinds TFTP
Sublime Text
Traceroute (Online)
Wireshark
Whois Search (Online)

FREE OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) TOOLS :


C Cleaner
Clonezilla
Forens IT - DefProf (Data & Settings From Default Win Profile To Another)
Forens IT - Profile Wizard (Migrate User Profile To New Domain Account)
Forens IT - Transwiz (User Profile Transfer Wizard)
Hiren's Boot Disk (Original Version)
Hiren's Boot Disk PE (Windows 10 Version)
Magical Jelly Bean
Microsoft Badapp (Original Version) (DOES ANYONE HAVE A LINK, PLEASE?)
Treesize
Ultimate Boot CD
Why So slow
Who Crashed


FREE OPERATING SYSTEMS (OS) :


Android - AOSP (Android On Mobile Devices - Open Source)
Android - x86 - (Run Android On PC Or Laptop)
Chromium - (The OS, Not The Web Browser From Google)
DOS - Caldera-DOS AKA DR-DOS
DOS - Free-DOS
DexOS
Friend OS (Online Browser Based OS Experanic)
Haiku
Linux - CentOS
Linux - Debian
Linux - DSL
Linux - Mint
Linux - OpenWrt
Linux - RedHat
Linux - Sugar On A Stick (SoaS)
Linux - Ubuntu Desktop
Linux - Ubuntu Server
Raspbian
React OS
Unix - FreeBSD
Unix - NetBSD
Unix - NomadBSD
Unix - OpenBSD
Unix - PC-BSD AKA TrueOS

NETWORK MAPPING :


Network Mapping (Definition 01) :

Network mapping is the study of the physical connectivity
of networks e.g. the Internet. Network mapping discovers the
devices on the network and their connectivity. It is not to be
confused with network discovery or network enumerating
which discovers devices on the network and their
characteristics such as (operating system, open ports,
listening network services, etc.). The field of automated
network mapping has taken on greater importance as
networks become more dynamic and complex in nature.



Network Mapping (Definition 02) :

A large scale global map of every wireless access point's unique ID
(including yours) which is freely available and constantly updated,
for anyone to use (for legitimate purposes) or to abuse. These maps
are not created with the knowledge or consent of individuals,
companies, home uses, or private individuals.



Network Mapping And War Driving :

Below are some example sites, where you can try to locate
networks and open wireless network (WIFI) connections and such
for other individuals networks and devices etc



Wigle.net (For moor infromation see below)
Open WIFIMap
Wardriving.com
Wardrive.net
Mylnikov.org
G-MoN (Play Store)
G-MoN (APK)
Using G-MoN (WarDriving - Field Test - Site Survey) for Wi-Fi 2G 3G UMTS 4G LTE 5G NR
RadioCells.org/
Mozilla Stumbler AKA Mozilla Location Service (MLS)
OpenBmap
Infrapedia Global Internet Infrastructure Map
Internet Exchange Map


Wigle.net provides resources for WiFi network mapping,
they claim to respect the privacy of anyone who requests
their network and personal information be removed from
from the Wigle.net database. To have records of your
access point(s) removed from theirdatabase send an email
to:
WiGLE-admin@WiGLE.net Additionally, ensure you include
the BSSID / MAC in the removal requests. You will also
need to append the tag "
_nomap" or "_optout" to your SSID to
stop other websites tracking your location.



PORTABLE APPLICATIONS :


PortableApps.com, allows you to Keep your work devices
and personal devices separate. You can enjoy many of the same apps
that are installed on your home or work device (Be it Andriod, Apple,
Linux and Windows etc) but from a USB flash drive. Imagine having
the same applications (or similar ones) that are on your mobile device,
running from a USB flash drive.


The benefit being (Especially with Windows) that this system will
generally bypass the Windows security settings, allowing you to run
programs and make changes without the need for administrator privileges.



Free & Flexible:


# No registration required
# No adware, spyware, or malware
# OSI Certified Open Source Software
# Every device you use, will now hve the apps you nee
# Your bookmarks and settings
# Edit your documents, photos and more on any device


I do not receive any remuneration or incentive from Portable Apps,
to advertise their product. I can tell you though from my own
personal experience, that Portable Apps has been a real lifesaver.
When I have needed to make changes on someone else's device for
them or they needed to run an application, that could be installed on
the device as they did not have admin rights. I was able to install a
portable version of that application e.g. Blender, GIMP, Firefox,
Chrome, PuTTY, Audacity, and many others including apps for IT,
Business, Multi Media, Games, etc. I really feel more people should
use Portable Apps (especially ICT people) that's why I am so keen to
promote Portable Apps.


Visit https://portableapps.com/ for more information.


NINITE :


Always Up-to-date
You don't have to wait and watch for apps to install and update, Ninite's bots will do that for you.


What Ninite will do for you:

# Start working as soon as you run it
# Not bother you with any choices or options
# Install apps in their default location
# Say no to toolbars or extra junk
# Install 64-bit apps on 64-bit machines
# Install apps in your PC's language or one you choose
# Do all its work in the background
# Install the latest stable version of an app
# Skip up-to-date apps
# Skip any reboot requests from installers
# Use your proxy settings from Internet Explorer
# Download apps from each publisher's official site
# Verify digital signatures or hashes before running anything
# Work best if you turn off any web filters or firewalls
# Save you a lot of time!


If you would like to Suggest An App then, please click here and scroll down a little.

Visit https://ninite.com/ for more information.



USB WEBSERVER :



What is USBWebserver?
USBWebserver is a combination of popular webserver software:
Apache, MySQL, PHP and phpMyAdmin.
With USBWebserver it is possible to develop and show your
PHP websites everywhere and anytime. The main advantage of
USBWebserver is that you can use it from USB or a regular CD.

USBWebserver is perfect for:
Demonstrating an offline version of your website
Develop PHP websites anywhere and anytime
No need for expensive hosting
Working at multiple locations on the projects
A good test before putting your website online
And many more

FAQ

1) Where do I need to put the files?
You need to put your files in the root directory.
You can reach the website by http://localhost:8080/.
2) How do I chmod a file?
You don't need to chmod files with USBWebserver.
3) Where can I find the settings files?
All the settings files are placed in the settings directory.
You need to restart USBWebserver after changing the settings.
4) What are the settings for phpMyAdmin?
Username is 'root' and the password 'usbw'.

Download USBWebserver Below:
LINK = Click Here

Download USBWebserver Manual Below:
LINK = Click Here



Privacy And Security Applications:



Secure Email:

Protonmail
Tutanota
Mailvelope

Secure Messenger:

Signal
Wire
Wick

Web Browser:

Duck Duck Go
Brave Browser
Tor Browser
Firefox Browser
Iridium Browser
Epic Privacy Browser
GNU IceCat Browser
WORLD WIDE WEB / INTERNET :


Down Detector (Checke If You favorite Services Are Down)
Have I Been Pwned (Check Email & Phone Data Breach)
HTTP Headers
Is It Down Right Now? (Website Status Checker)
MyWOT (Web Of Trust)
Norton Safeweb
Report A Suspicious Website (Reports To The NCSC)
Scam Adviser
Seobility (All In One SEO Software And Tools - Main Page)
Seobility (Type / Past Your URL Hear)
Software Informer
Trust Pilot
URL Encode (And) Decode
WHOIS Search
Website Informer


WEB BROWSER EXTENSIONS AND PLUGINS :


Adblock Plus (Google Chrome Extension)
Bookmark Manager Speed Dial | Papaly (Google Chrome Extension)
Earth View From Google Earth (Google Chrome Extension)
EPUBReader (Google Chrome Extension)
FoxClocks (Google Chrome Extension)
Full Page Screen Capture (Google Chrome Extension)
Grammarly (Free & Spelling And Grammar) (Google Chrome Extension)
Honey (Online Shopping Discounts) (Google Chrome Extension)
Microsoft Teams Screen Sharing (Google Chrome Extension)
Pushbullet (Google Chrome Extension)
The Great Suspender (Google Chrome Extension)
The QR Code Extension (Google Chrome Extension)


QUICK LINKS :


Amateur Radio - 73 Magazine AKA Amateur Radio Today
Amateur Radio - American Radio Relay League (ARRL)
Amateur Radio - Radio Society Of Great Britain

Archive.org (Internet Archive)
Archive.org (Wayback Machine)
Basic Logic Gates And Functions (Electronics)
Bootrec - Guide For Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1, 10
BT Openreach Cable Theft And Iidentification Booklet V4
Calculator - Calculator.net - A Variety Of Calculators (Online) - 01
Calculator - Calculator.net - A Variety Of Calculators (Online) - 02
Calculator - Computing - CRC Calculator (Online)
Calculator - Computing - Hex Calculator - 01- (Online)
Calculator - Computing - Hex Calculator - 02 - (Online)
Calculator - Electrical - db Power Voltage Amplifier Ratios (Online)
Calculator - Electrical - Single Layer Coil Winding
Calculator - Electrical - L/C/F And Single Layer Coil Winding
Coding - DEMO - Pouët.net (Demo Programming Community)
Coding - HTML - W3 Schools
Coding - HTML - A Quick And Simple Online Color Picker
Coding - HTML - Best Online Color Picker
Coding - HTML - Best Online Color Picker - Gradient
Coding - HTML - CMYK Calculator - Color Picker
Coding - HTML - Color Names
Coding - Java Script - Java Script Fundamentals
Coding - Java Script - Objects: The Basics
Coding - Java Script - Data Types
Coding - Java Script - Object Properties Configuration
Commodore64 - High Voltage SID Collection (A Collection Of C64 Music)
Commodore64 - SID Play (SID Music Player For Mac)
Commodore64 - SID Players (SID Music Players For Various Platforms)
Commodore64 - The Commodore 64 Scene Database (CSDB)
Converter - A Converter - One Unit To Another (Online)
Converter - Computer - KB - MB - GB - TB - PB - ETC (Online)
Converter - CHMOD (For UNIX Systems) Calculator (Online)
Converter - ASCII To: HEX - DEC - BIN (Online)
Converter - Frequency Conversion (Online)
Converter - Frequency Wavelength Calculator (Online)
Converter - Wavelength To Colour Calculator (Online) - 01
Converter - Wavelength To Colour Calculator (Online) - 02
Converter - Wavelength To RGB Converter (Online)
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - Downvids
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - Downloader
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - FileConvertO
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - KeepVid
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - SaveFrom
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - SaveFrom Party
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - Tube Offline
Download from YouTube And Other Sites - UK.Y2Mate.com
Google - Google Accounts Sign In
Google - Google Passwords Manager
Hash Calculator (Online)
Is It Down Right Now? (Website Status Checker)
Key Performance Counters And Their Thresholds For Windows Server
Kitz.co.uk - (Broadband Information Site)
Offline Database - Kiwix (Setup A Raspberry Pi Hotspot)
Magical Jelly Bean (Retrieves Your Product Key (CD Key)
Manuals - Acer
Manuals - Apple - Current Generation
Manuals - Apple - Older Generation
Manuals - Asus
Manuals - Dell
Manuals - Hewlett Packard (HP)
Manuals - Jabra 75 Headset - Rev B
Manuals - Jabra 75 Headset - Rev E
Manuals - Jabra 75 How To Manually Reset To Default Settings
Manuals - Jabra 75 How To Update Firmware With Jabra Direct
Manuals - Jabra 75 Support Pages
Manuals - Jabra 750 Speak
Manuals - Sennheiser - D10 Series Wierless DECT
Manuals - Sennheiser - D20 Series Wierless DECT
Manuals - Sennheiser - D10 D20 And SD Battery Does Not Charge Correctly
Manuals - Sennheiser - FAQ – USB 800 USB
Manuals - Windows 10 - (Users Guide)
Meraki - Dashboared - My Meraki Com
Meraki - Dashboared - Password Reset
Microsoft - 365 Office / Business Premium (Licences Types)
Microsoft - 365 Office / Exchange Online Limits
Microsoft - 365 Office / Find The Right Solution For You
Microsoft - ATP - Release Quarantined Messages And Files
Microsoft - Azure - AD - Revok Token
Microsoft - Azure - Enroll In Azure AD (Error 8018000a)
Microsoft - Azure - Status
Microsoft - Edge - Export And Import Bookmarks
Microsoft - Excel - Automatically Number Rows
Microsoft - Fix Windows Registry Guide For: Windows XP, Vista, 7, 8, 8.1, 10
Microsoft - IE 11 & Edge TLS "Can’t Connect Securely To Page"
Microsoft - OneDrive - Share Files And Folders
Microsoft - OneDrive - Synchronization - Differences In Type
Microsoft - SharePoint - Share Files Or Folders
Microsoft - Shared Mailboxes, Use,Configure & Synchronization Issues
Microsoft - Start Windows 10 In Safe Mode
Microsoft - Microsoft Teams - Screen Share In Teams
Microsoft - Receive Remote Assistance Support From Microsoft
Microsoft - Portal - Azure Management Portal
Microsoft - Portal - Microsoft 365 Defender
Microsoft - Portal - Microsoft Portals (A List Of All Microsoft’s Portals)
Microsoft - Portal - Partner Portal / Partner Centre - Office365.com
Microsoft - Portal - Portal.Office365.com
Microsoft - Portal - Quarantine Page
Microsoft - Windows Update Troubleshooter
Network - Countries By IPv4 Address Allocation

Network - Infrapedia Global Internet Infrastructure Map
Network - Internet Exchange Map
Network - Ipinfo.io
Network - lookip.net
Network - United Kingdom ASN Summary
Network - Website Informer
NHS Mail - Email - Archiving Guidance And FAQs For Exchange Online
NHS Mail - Email - Inbox Rules
NHS Mail - Email - Send Secure Email Guide (Including To Patients)
NHS Mail - Email - Support Articles
NHS Mail - IP Whitelisting
NHS Mail - Mobile Device Support Guide
NHS Mail - Teams - How To Set Up Meetings
NHS Mail - Teams - Local Administrator FAQs
NHS Mail - Teams - Sign In To Temas Online And Application
Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press)
Old Version.com
Owl Labs - Meeting Owl Pro User Guides
Panzoid
Poly / Polycom (Video Conferencing Test IP Address ETC)
Prime95 - Free Mersenne Prime Search Software
RAID Levels
Rotten WIFI
Security - 711 Million Onliner Spambot Dump (Blog)
Security - Have I Been Pwned (Check Email & Phone Data Breach)
Security - Is It Down Right Now? (Website Status Checker)
Security - FileOpen Plug-in
Security - Password Generator - 01
Security - Password Generator - 02
Security - Password Generator - 03
Security - Password Strength Test - 01
Security - Password Strength Test - 02
Security - Password Strength Test - 03
Security - Report A Suspicious Website (Reports To The NCSC)
Security - Secure Printing - Canon - MF8580Cdw Only
SolarWinds - N-Central - Mac Agent - How To Cleanup/Reinstall SolarWinds
SolarWinds - N-Central - Take Control Agent - How To Clean Reinstall)
TalkTalk - Routers - Enabling TeamViewer
Templates - MS Word - Create A Professional Manual
TheOldNet.Com (90's Internet Browsing - Great For Retro Devices)
TheTrueSize.Com (Mercator Projection Showing Ture Size Of Countries)
UK2.net - C Panale Login Page (chi.uk2.net)
Upverter - Modular Design (PCB, Schematics, AR, 3D preview)
Warranty Checker - Acer
Warranty Checker - Apple
Warranty Checker - Asus
Warranty Checker - Dell
Warranty Checker - Hewlett Packard (HP)
Warranty Checker - International Business Machines (IBM) - USA
Warranty Checker - International Business Machines (IBM) - International
Warranty Checker - Jabra
Warranty Checker - Lenovo (IBM Lenovo) / Legend
Warranty Checker - Microsoft - Surface
Warranty Checker - Toshiba - Link - 01
Warranty Checker - Toshiba - Link - 02 - (Takes A Moment To Load)
Website Informer
WiGLE - Wirless Network Mapping
WikiChip
Win World (Library Of Operating System To Download (Mostly Windows)
Z Library
Zoom Meeting (Without The App)

SIMULATORS :


AI2
BlueStacks - (Run Android / Google Apps In BlueStacks)
Cisco Packet Tracer - (Simulator Entire Networks And More)
Emupedia (Online)
GNS3 - (Run Router / Switch IOS And More)
iPadian


EMULATORS (Online - In Your Web Browser) :

EmuOS - (This Is One Of The Best, Lots Of Games & Apps)
Windows 93 - (This Is One Of The Best, Very Funny)
TheOldNet.Com (90's Internet Browsing - Great For Retro Devices)
Amiga Workbench Simulator
Atari ST
OS/2
Windows 95
Windows 3.1 with CD-ROM
Windows 3.1
Windows 1.0
QNX
Macintosh System 7


EMULATORS (Offline - Download And Install) :


Amiga (WinUAE)
Amstrad CPC (Arnold CPC)
Amstrad CPC (Arnold v1.7.6)
Anbox
Commodore 64 (VICE)
Sinclair ZX Spectrum (SPIN)



VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE :


Boot Camp
DOS Box
Gnome Boxes
Hyper-V
KVM (KVM hypervisor)
Parallels (Run Windows On Mac, Without Rebooting)
Proxmox VE
QEMU (Quick Emulator)
Red Hat Virtualization
Virtual Box
Virt Manager (Virtual Machine Manager)
VM Monitor (Solarwinds)
VMware Fusion For Mac
VMware Workstation Player
Virtualization Manager



3D SCANNER / PHOTO GRAMMETRY (PC) :

3DF ZEPHYR
Agisoft Metashape
Colmap
Ethan Makes 3D Scanner App
MicMac
Meshroom
Open MVG
Regard3D
Trnio
Visual SFM


3D SCANNER / PHOTO GRAMMETRY (MOBILE) :

Bevel
itSeez3D (Requiers An iPad / iPhone)
Scann3d
Qlone
ReCap Pro
Trnio



USB PORT TYPES AND SPEEDS :


USB Types – 01
Image Credit: /u/luke_in_the_sky

USB Types – 02
Image Credit: Sweetwater.com


Image Credit: Anthony Matabaro


1U VS 2U :

1U VS 2U - What Does The "U" Refer To?
The "U" in any server description is short for "RU", which stands for
Rack Unit. This is the standardized designation for the form factor
of the server.
Rack UnitsHeight (in)Height (cm)
1U1.75″4.4 cm
2U3.5″8.9 cm
3U5.25″13.3 cm
4U7″17.78 cm
All rackmount servers are 19" in width.

DIFFERENT RAID LEVALS TYPES :


RAID TYPEDESCRIPTION
RAIDRedundant Array of Independent Disks
RAID (No RAID)If your device only has one HDD / SSD, then you
can not use RAID.

If downtime and data loss are not a big concern,
then no RAID is fine.
RAID 0Trade off.

If data loss is not an issue but performance is
essential then RADI 0 is suitable.
RAID 1High uptime & increased performance of backups.

An inexpensive way to add data redundancy and
or improve read speeds.
RAID 2RAID 2 is considered obsolete.

RAID 2 is a technique that stripes data at the bit
level using a Hamming code to detect errors.
Because the error correction codes in today's
hard disk drives use Hamming code, RAID 2 is
now considered obsolete.
RAID 3RAID 3 works as RAID 0 does

RAID 3 uses byte level stripping, it also uses an
additional disk in the array. It is used to store
checksums and it supports a special processor
in parity codes calculating, this has lead to some
people terming it “the parity disk”.
RAID 4RAID 4 is a RAID configuration that uses a
dedicated parity disk and block level
striping across multiple disks. Because
data is striped in RAID 4, the records can
be read from any disk.
RAID 5 / 6Good for Web servers with a requirement for high
read speeds or very large storage arrays as a
single object. RADI 5 / 6 will perform very poorly
when it comes to writing speeds, slower
than RAID 1.
RAID 7RAID 7 is a trademarked RAID level owned by the
now defunct Storage Computer Corp. ... RAID 7 is
based on RAID 3 and RAID 4, but adds caching.
The commercial implementation incorporates
proprietary disk array hardware with a real-time
embedded operating system to control disk drive
access and data flow to host interfaces.
RAID 8Unable to locate any information on RAID 8
RAID 9Unable to locate any information on RAID 9
RAID 10Best Balanced Option.

Generally considered a good all around option
for providing additional read and write speed
and additional redundancy.

USEFUL IP ADDRESS :


IP Address (ping)Name (nslookup)Purpose
1.1.1.1one.one.one.oneCloudflare's DNS resolver,
hides your DNS requests.
4.2.2.2b.resolvers.Level3.netLevel 3's public DNS service.
8.8.8.8dns.googleGoogle's public DNS service.
9.9.9.9dns9.quad9.netPublic DNS resolver that
blocks access to malware
infected websites.
9.9.9.10dns10.quad9.netA free, recursive, anycast
DNS provides end users
With security protection,
high performance and
privacy.
71.14.2.158071-014-002-158.biz.spectrum.comVideo Conferencing (VC) Test
127.0.0.1localhost.localdomainTest the IP Stack
on a local host

COMMON PORT NUMBERS :


Port NumberProtocol / Info
20File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
21File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
22SSH
23Telnet
25Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
50IPSec
51IPSec
67Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
68Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
80HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
88HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
110Post Office Protocol (POP3)
123Network Time Protocol (NTP)
389Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
443HTTP with Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
513Rlogin
8081TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
989FTP over SSL/TLS (Implicit mode)
990FTP over SSL/TLS (Implicit mode)
9090UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
9100TCP port used for printing
0 - 1023Assigned to common protocols & services.
1024 - 49151Registered ports assigned by ICANN to specific services.
49152 -65 535Dynamic (private, high) ports.

COMMON ACRONYMS TECH:


AcronymMeaning
AD

Active Directory

Active Directory is a directory service developed
by Microsoft for Windows domain networks.
It is included in most Windows Server operating
systems as a set of processes and services.
AADAzure Active Directory

Azure Active Directory (Azure AD or AAD) is
Microsoft's enterprise cloud-based identity
and access management (IAM) solution.
Azure AD is the backbone of the Office 365
system, and it can sync with on-premise
Active Directory and provide authentication
to other cloud-based systems via OAuth
LDAPLightweight Directory Access Protocol

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
is an open, vendor neutral, industry standard
application protocol for accessing and
maintaining distributed directory information
services over an Internet Protocol network.
MMCMicrosoft Management Console

Microsoft Management Console is a
component of Windows 2000 and its
successors that provides system
administrators and advanced users an
interface for configuring and monitoring
the system.
SCOMSystem Centre Operations Manager

System Center Operations Manager is a cross
platform data center monitoring system for
operating systems and hypervisors. It uses a
single interface that shows state, health and
performance information of computer systems.
SCCMSystem Centre Configuration Manager

Microsoft Endpoint Configuration Manager
(Configuration Manager, also known as
ConfigMgror MEMCM), formerly
System Center Configuration Manager
(SCCM) and Systems Management Server
(SMS) is a systems management software
product developed by Microsoft for
managing large groups of computers running
Windows NT, Windows Embedded, macOS
(OS X), Linux or UNIX, as well as Windows
Phone, Symbian, iOS and Android mobile
operating systems. Configuration Manager
provides remote control, patch management,
software distribution, operating system
deployment, network access protection and
hardware and software
UEFIUnified Extensible Firmware Interface

The UEFI Interface is a specification that defines a
software interface between an operating system
and platform firmware.
MIPSMillions Of Instructions Per Second

Instructions per second, in most modern
computers it is now in the millions hence MIPS
as opposed to just IPS is a measure of a
computer's processor speed. For complex
instruction set computers, different instructions
take different amounts of time, so the value
measured depends on the instruction mix; even
for comparing processors in the same family the
IPS measurement can be problematic.
FLOPSFloating Point Operations Per Second

In computing, floating point operations per second
is a measure of computer performance, useful in
fields of scientific computations that require floating
point calculations. For such cases it is a more accurate
measure than measuring instructions per second
TPITracks Per Inch

TPI is the number of tracks a disk can hold.
For example, a 5.25 inch floppy disk
(double density) has 48 TPI, a high density
3.5 inch disk has 135 TPI, and hard drives
(HDDs) have much higher TPI count,
far into the thousands.
TTLTime To Live

Time to live or hop limit is a mechanism
that limits the lifespan or lifetime of data
in a computer or network. TTL may be
implemented as a counter or timestamp
attached to or embedded in the data. Once
the prescribed event count or timespan
has elapsed, data is discarded or revalidated.
PSTNPublic Switched Telephone Network

The PSTN provides infrastructure and
services for public telecommunication.
The PSTN is the aggregate of the
world's circuit switched telephone
networks that are operated by national,
regional, or local telephony operators.
These consist of telephone lines, fiber
optic cables, microwave transmission
links, cellular networks, communications
satellites, and undersea telephone cables,
all interconnected by switching
centers which allow most telephones to
communicate with each other.
Originally a network of fixed line analog
telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost
entirely digital in its core network and
includes mobile and other networks, as well
as fixed telephones.
PBXPrivate Branch eXchange

A PBX system is a multiline telephone system
typically used in business environments,
encompassing systems ranging in technology
from the key telephone system (KTS) to the
private branch exchange (PBX).
A business telephone system differs from an
installation of several telephones with multiple
central office (CO) lines in that the CO lines used
are directly controllable in key telephone systems
from multiple telephone stations, and that such a
system often provides additional features related
to call handling. Business telephone systems are
often broadly classified into key telephone systems,
and private branch exchanges, but many hybrid
systems exist.

COMMON ACRONYMS ORGANISATIONS :


AcronymMeaning
ACTAAdministrative Council For Terminal Attachments

The ACTA is an open organization
established by the FCC and jointly
sponsored by the Alliance for
Telecommunications Industry
Solutions (ATIS) and the
Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA). The mission of
the ACTA is to:

Adopt technical criteria and to act as the
clearing house, publishing technical criteria
for terminal equipment
(Part 68 Compliance/scope C) developed by
ANSI‐accredited standards development
organizations; and establish and maintain a
registration database of equipment
approved as compliant with the
technical criteria.
EIAElectronics Industries Alliance

The Electronic Industries Alliance
(EIA; until 1997 Electronic Industries
Association) was an American standards
and trade organization (founded in 1924)
composed as an alliance of trade
associations for electronics
manufacturers in the United States.
They developed standards to ensure the
equipment of different manufacturers was
compatible and interchangeable. It is now
Dormant, pending merger with National
Electronic Distributors Association,
rebranded into Electronic Components
Industry Association. It's successor is the
Electronic Components Industry Association
(ECIA), see Global Standards Collaboration
(GSC)
ETAElectronics Technicians Association

The ETA International® is a US-based NPO
501(c)(6) trade association founded in 1978.
The association provides certifications in
industries such as basic electronics, fiber
optics and data cabling, renewable energy,
information technology, photonics and
precision optics, customer service,
biomedical, avionics, wireless communications
radar, and smart home. ETA is also one of the
12 COLEMs (See COLEMS) for the U.S. FCC
(See FCC) testing. ETA works with technicians,
educators, and military personnel. ETA also
partners with companies such as Motorola
Solutions to provide certification to
their employees.
FCCFederal Communications Commission

The FCC is an independent agency of the
United States government that regulates
communications by radio, television, wire,
satellite, and cable across the United States.
Although a US organisation, its policies and
recommendations are often adopted by other
nations, such as the UK.
GSCGlobal Standards Collaboration

The GSC was originally the "Interregional
Telecommunications Standards conference (ITSC)
back in 1990. This was an initiative of the T1
Committee of the United States who invited the
other founding partner organizations ITU-T, ETSI
and the Japanese TTC to the first ISC Meeting in
Fredericksburg, VA. The goal was set by the
“spirit of Melbourne”, stemming from a CCITT
Plenary Assembly, to find a way of cooperation
between Participating Standards Organizations
(PSOs) from different regions of the world in
order to facilitate global standardization within
the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
The ITSC focussed its work on fixed
telecommunications networks.

After a few years, the ITSC, as a conference,
became too large and was therefore reduced to
the Global Standards Collaboration (GSC), with
delegations limited to a reasonable size (10 maximum).
The first GSC meeting was held in 1994 in Melbourne,
Australia. Around the same time, it was decided to
expand the scope to cover Radio Communications with
the addition of a parallel set of Global Radio
Standardization (RAST) meeting, the first one being
hosted by ETSI in Nice in October 1994.

Over the course of time, the Australian, Canadian,
Korean and Chinese national standards organizations
joined bringing the number of Participating Standards
Organizations to ten. Observers from other standards
related organizations and Fora are also invited to participate.

In November 2001, it was decided to rename GSC
as GTSC (where T = Telecoms) and RAST as GRSC
(where R = Radio) and to use the term GSC an overall
"umbrella" for the combined plenary sessions.
IEEEInstitute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers

The IEEE is a professional association for
electronic engineering and electrical
engineering (and associated disciplines) It was
formed in 1963 from the amalgamation of the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers and
the Institute of Radio Engineers.

Due to its expansion of scope into so many
related fields, it is simply referred to by the
letters I-E-E-E (pronounced I-triple-E), except on
legal business documents. Its objectives are the
educational and technical advancement of
electrical and electronic engineering,
telecommunications, computer engineering
and similar disciplines
IESGInternet Engineering Steering Group

The IESG is responsible for the technical
management of IETF activities and the Internet
standards process. The IESG administers the
process according to the rules and procedures
that have been ratified by the Internet Society
trustees [RFC 2026]. It is directly responsible for
the actions associated with entry into and
movement along the Internet "standards track,"
including final approval of specifications as
Internet Standards.

IETFInternet Engineering Task Force

IETF is an open standards organization, which
develops and promotes voluntary Internet
standards, in particular, the standards that
comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
It has no formal membership roster or
membership requirements. All participants
and managers are volunteers, though their
work is usually funded by their employers
or sponsors.
IECInternational Electrotechnical Commission

The IEC is an international standards organization
that prepares and publishes international
standards for all electrical, electronic and related
technologies, collectively known as
"electrotechnology".
NICEICNational Inspection Council for Electrical Installation Contracting

NICEIC is one of several organisations which
regulates the training and work of electrical
enterprises in the UK. NICEIC is one of several
providers given Government approval to offer
Competent Person Schemes to oversee electrical
work within the electrical industry in the UK.
OFFCOMOffice Of Communications

Ofcom is the government-approved regulatory
and competition authority for the broadcasting,
telecommunications and postal industries of the
United Kingdom. Ofcom has wide ranging
powers across the television, radio, telecoms
and postal sectors. It has a statutory duty to
represent the interests of citizens and consumers
by promoting competition and protecting the
public from harmful or offensive material.
Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over
are licensing, research, codes and policies,
complaints, competition and protecting the radio
spectrum from abuse (e.g. pirate radio stations).
The regulator was initially established by the
Office of Communications Act 2002 and received
its full authority from the Communications Act
2003 the creation of Ofcom was announced in
the Queen's Speech to the UK Parliament, in
June 2001. The new body, which would replace
several existing authorities, was conceived as a
"super-regulator" to oversee media channels
that were rapidly converging through digital
transmission. Ofcom launched on 29
December 2003, formally inheriting the duties
that had previously been the responsibility of
five different regulators:

The Broadcasting Standards Commission
The Independent Television Commission
The Office of Telecommunications (Oftel)
The Radio Authority
The Radiocommunications Agency
TIATelecommunications Industry Association

The TIA (Founded in 1988) is accredited
by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary,
consensus-based industry standards for
a wide variety of Information and
Communication Technologies products,
and currently represents nearly
400 companies.
VESAVideo Electronics Standards Association

VESA is an American technical standards
organization for computer display standards.
The organization was incorporated in California
in July 1989 and has its office in San Jose.
It claims a membership of over 300 companies.
In November 1988, NEC Home Electronics
announced its creation of the association to
develop and promote a Super VGA computer
display standard as a successor to IBM's
proprietary Video Graphics Array (VGA)
display standard. Super VGA enabled graphics
display resolutions up to 800×600 pixels,
compared to VGA's maximum resolution of
640×480 pixels an increase of 36%.
The organization has since issued several
additional standards related to computer
video displays. Widely used VESA standards
include DisplayHDR, DisplayPort, and
Flat Display Mounting Interface (FDMI) AKA a
VESA Mount.

COMMON ACRONYMS & NAMES COMPANYS:


AcronymMeaning
3MMinnesota Mining & Manufacturing Company
Founded by
Dr. J. Danley Budd
Henry. S. Bryan
William A. McGonagle
John Dwan
Hermon W. Cable

Founded in 1902
Acer IncAcer Inc
Romanized name
Hóngqí Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī
Founded by
Stan Shih
Carolyn Yeh
George Huang

Founded in 1976
Asus (Huáshuò in Chinese)Pegasus
According to the company website,
the name Asus originates from Pegasus,
the winged horse of Greek mythology
Romanized name
Huáshuò Diànnǎo Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī
Founded by
Ted Hsu, M.T. Liao,
Wayne Tsiah, T.H. Tung,
Luca D.M

Founded in 1989
DellDell (Formerly PC's Limited 1984-1987)
Is named after the company founder
Michael Saul Dell
Founded in 1984
HPHewlett-Packard
Which was named after the founder's
Founded by
Bill Hewlett,
David Packard

Founded in 1939
MSIMicro-Star International
Founded by
Joseph Hsu, Jeans Huang,
Frank Lin, Kenny Yu,
Henry Lu

Founded in 1986
NECNippon Electric Company, Limited
Romanized name
Nippon Denki Kabushiki Gaisha
Founded by
Kunihiko Iwadare,
Takeshiro Maeda

Founded in 1899
RS ComponentsRadiospares Components
Founded by
J.H. Waring,
P.M. Sebestyen

Founded in 1937

THE OSI MODEL :


OSI LAYERDESCRIPTION
OSI MODELOpen Systems Interconnection Model
Application LayThe application layer is the user facing part of
the system, in this case, the GUI / CLI. It allows
the user to see and interact with the device and
its various applications such as Outlook, Google
Chrome, Teams, Games, CMD and any other
application or GUI / CLI the users can access.
This is the layer most people are familiar with in
their daily use of their device.
Presentation LayerThe presentation layer formats or translates data
for the application layer based on the syntax or
semantics that the application accepts. Because
of this, it is at times also called the syntax layer.
This layer can also handle the encryption and
decryption required by the application layer.
Session LayerThe session layer controls the conversations
between different computers. A session or
the connection between machines is set up,
managed, and terminated at layer 5. Session
layer services also include authentication
and reconnections.
Transport LayerThe transport layer manages the delivery and
error checking of data packets. It regulates
the size, sequencing, and ultimately the
transfer of data between systems and
hosts. One of the most common examples o
the transport layer is TCP or the Transmission
Control Protocol.
Network LayerThe network layer is responsible for receiving
frames from the data link layer and delivering
them to their intended destinations based on
the addresses contained inside the frame.
The network layer finds the destination by
using logical addresses, such as
IP (internet protocol). At this layer, routers
are a crucial component used to quite literally
route information where it needs to go
between networks.
Data Link LayerAt the data link layer, directly connected
nodes are used to perform node to node
data transfer where data is packaged into
frames. The data link layer also corrects errors
that may have occurred at the physical layer.
The data link layer encompasses two sub-layers
of its own. The first, media access control
(MAC), provides flow control and multiplexing
for device transmissions over a network.
The second, the logical link control (LLC),
provides flow and error control over the
physical medium as well as identifies
line protocols.
Physical LayerThe lowest layer of the OSI Model is concerned
with electrically or optically transmitting raw
unstructured data bits across the network from
the physical layer of the sending device to the
physical layer of the receiving device. It can
include specifications such as voltages, pin
layout, cabling, and radio frequencies. At
the physical layer, one might find
“physical” resources such as network
hubs, cabling, repeaters, network
adapters or modems.

THE TCP/IP MODEL :


TCP/IP LAYERDESCRIPTION
TCP/IP MODELOpen Systems Interconnection Model
ApplicationThis layer provides applications with standardized
data exchange. Its protocols include HTTP, FTP,
Post Office Protocol 3, Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol and Simple Network Management
Protocol. At the application layer, the payload is
the actual application data.
TransportThis layer is responsible for maintaining end
to end communications across the network.
TCP handles communications between hosts
and provides flow control, multiplexing, and
reliability. The transport protocols include TCP
and User Datagram Protocol, which is
sometimes used instead of TCP for special
purposes.
NetworkThis layer is also called the internet layer,
deals with packets and connects independent
networks to transport the packets across
network boundaries. The network layer
protocols are IP and Internet Control
Message Protocol, which is used for
error reporting.
Network InterfaceAlso known as the network interface layer or
data link layer, consists of protocols that operate
only on a link -- the network component that
interconnects nodes or hosts in the network.
The protocols in this lowest layer include Ethernet
for local area networks and Address Resolution
Protocol.

ASCII CONTROL CHARACTERS (NON PRINTABLE) :


ASCII Code NumberControl Character
ASCII code 00NULL ( Null character )
ASCII code 01SOH ( Start of Header )
ASCII code 02STX ( Start of Text )
ASCII code 03ETX ( End of Text, hearts card suit )
ASCII code 04EOT ( End of Transmission, diamonds card suit )
ASCII code 05ENQ ( Enquiry, clubs card suit )
ASCII code 06ACK ( Acknowledgement, spade card suit )
ASCII code 07BEL ( Bell )
ASCII code 08BS ( Backspace )
ASCII code 09HT ( Horizontal Tab )
ASCII code 10LF ( Line feed )
ASCII code 11VT ( Vertical Tab, male symbol, symbol for Mars )
ASCII code 12FF ( Form feed, female symbol, symbol for Venus )
ASCII code 13CR ( Carriage return )
ASCII code 14SO ( Shift Out )
ASCII code 15SI ( Shift In )
ASCII code 16DLE ( Data link escape )
ASCII code 17DC1 ( Device control 1 )
ASCII code 18DC1 ( Device control 2 )
ASCII code 19DC1 ( Device control 3 )
ASCII code 20DC1 ( Device control 4 )
ASCII code 21NAK ( NAK Negative-acknowledge )
ASCII code 22SYN ( Synchronous idle )
ASCII code 23ETB ( End of trans. block )
ASCII code 24CAN ( Cancel )
ASCII code 25EM ( End of medium )
ASCII code 26SUB ( Substitute )
ASCII code 27ESC ( Escape )
ASCII code 28FS ( File separator )
ASCII code 29GS ( Group separator )
ASCII code 30RS ( Record separator )
ASCII code 31US ( Unit separator )
ASCII code 127DEL ( Delete )

ASCII PRINTABLE CHARACTERS :


ASCII CODE NUMBERExtended Characters
ASCII code 128Ç ( Majuscule C-cedilla
ASCII code 129ü ( letter u with umlaut or diaeresis , u-umlaut )
ASCII code 130é ( letter e with acute accent or e-acute )
ASCII code 131â ( letter a with circumflex accent or a-circumflex )
ASCII code 132ä ( letter a with umlaut or diaeresis , a-umlaut )
ASCII code 133à ( letter a with grave accent )
ASCII code 134å ( letter a with a ring )
ASCII code 135ç ( Minuscule c-cedilla )
ASCII code 136ê ( letter e with circumflex accent or e-circumflex )
ASCII code 137ë ( letter e with umlaut or diaeresis ; e-umlauts )
ASCII code 138è ( letter e with grave accent )
ASCII code 139ï ( letter i with umlaut or diaeresis ; i-umlaut )
ASCII code 140î ( letter i with circumflex accent or i-circumflex )
ASCII code 141ì ( letter i with grave accent )
ASCII code 142Ä ( letter A with umlaut or diaeresis ; A-umlaut )
ASCII code 143Å ( Capital letter A with a ring )
ASCII code 144É ( Capital letter E with acute accent or E-acute )
ASCII code 145æ ( Latin diphthong ae in lowercase )
ASCII code 146Æ ( Latin diphthong AE in uppercase )
ASCII code 147ô ( letter o with circumflex accent or o-circumflex )
ASCII code 148ö ( letter o with umlaut or diaeresis ; o-umlaut )
ASCII code 149ò ( letter o with grave accent )
ASCII code 150û ( letter u with circumflex accent or u-circumflex )
ASCII code 151ù ( letter u with grave accent )
ASCII code 152ÿ ( Lowercase letter y with diaeresis )
ASCII code 153Ö ( Letter O with umlaut or diaeresis ; O-umlaut )
ASCII code 154Ü ( Letter U with umlaut or diaeresis ; U-umlaut )
ASCII code 155ø ( Lowercase slashed zero or empty set )
ASCII code 156£ ( Pound sign ; symbol for the pound sterling )
ASCII code 157Ø ( Uppercase slashed zero or empty set )
ASCII code 158× ( Multiplication sign )
ASCII code 159ƒ ( Function sign ; f with hook sign ; florin sign )
ASCII code 160á ( Lowercase letter a with acute accent or a-acute )
ASCII code 161í ( Lowercase letter i with acute accent or i-acute )
ASCII code 162ó ( Lowercase letter o with acute accent or o-acute )
ASCII code 163ú ( Lowercase letter u with acute accent or u-acute )
ASCII code 164ñ ( eñe, enie, spanish letter enye, lowercase n with tilde )
ASCII code 165Ñ ( Spanish letter enye, uppercase N with tilde, EÑE, enie )
ASCII code 166ª ( feminine ordinal indicator )
ASCII code 167º ( masculine ordinal indicator )
ASCII code 168¿ ( Inverted question marks )
ASCII code 169® ( Registered trademark symbol )
ASCII code 170¬ ( Logical negation symbol )
ASCII code 171½ ( One half )
ASCII code 172¼ ( Quarter, one fourth )
ASCII code 173¡ ( Inverted exclamation marks )
ASCII code 174« ( Angle quotes, guillemets, right-pointing quotation mark )
ASCII code 175» ( Guillemets, angle quotes, left-pointing quotation marks )
ASCII code 176░ ( Graphic character, low density dotted )
ASCII code 177▒ ( Graphic character, medium density dotted )
ASCII code 178▓ ( Graphic character, high density dotted )
ASCII code 179│ ( Box drawing character single vertical line )
ASCII code 180┤ ( Box drawing character single vertical and left line )
ASCII code 181Á ( Capital letter A with acute accent or A-acute )
ASCII code 182Â ( Letter A with circumflex accent or A-circumflex )
ASCII code 183À ( Letter A with grave accent )
ASCII code 184© ( Copyright symbol )
ASCII code 185╣ ( Box drawing character double line vertical and left )
ASCII code 186║ ( Box drawing character double vertical line )
ASCII code 187╗ ( Box drawing character double line upper right corner )
ASCII code 188╝ ( Box drawing character double line lower right corner )
ASCII code 189¢ ( Cent symbol )
ASCII code 190¥ ( YEN and YUAN sign )
ASCII code 191┐ ( Box drawing character single line upper right corner )
ASCII code 192└ ( Box drawing character single line lower left corner )
ASCII code 193┴ ( Box drawing character single line horizontal and up )
ASCII code 194┬ ( Box drawing character single line horizontal down )
ASCII code 195├ ( Box drawing character single line vertical and right )
ASCII code 196─ ( Box drawing character single horizontal line )
ASCII code 197┼ ( Box drawing character single line horizontal vertical )
ASCII code 198ã ( Lowercase letter a with tilde or a-tilde )
ASCII code 199Ã ( Capital letter A with tilde or A-tilde )
ASCII code 200╚ ( Box drawing character double line lower left corner )
ASCII code 201╔ ( Box drawing character double line upper left corner )
ASCII code 202╩ ( Box drawing character double line horizontal and up )
ASCII code 203╦ ( Box drawing character double line horizontal down )
ASCII code 204╠ ( Box drawing character double line vertical and right )
ASCII code 205═ ( Box drawing character double horizontal line )
ASCII code 206╬ ( Box drawing character double line horizontal vertical )
ASCII code 207¤ ( Generic currency sign )
ASCII code 208ð ( Lowercase letter eth )
ASCII code 209Ð ( Capital letter Eth )
ASCII code 210Ê ( Letter E with circumflex accent or E-circumflex )
ASCII code 211Ë ( Letter E with umlaut or diaeresis, E-umlaut )
ASCII code 212È ( Capital letter E with grave accent )
ASCII code 213ı ( Lowercase dot less i )
ASCII code 214Í ( Capital letter I with acute accent or I-acute )
ASCII code 215Î ( Letter I with circumflex accent or I-circumflex )
ASCII code 216Ï ( Letter I with umlaut or diaeresis ; I-umlaut )
ASCII code 217┘ ( Box drawing character single line lower right corner )
ASCII code 218┌ ( Box drawing character single line upper left corner )
ASCII code 219█ ( Block, graphic character )
ASCII code 220▄ ( Bottom half block )
ASCII code 221¦ ( Vertical broken bar )
ASCII code 222 Ì ( Capital letter I with grave accent )
ASCII code 223▀ ( Top half block )
ASCII code 224Ó ( Capital letter O with acute accent or O-acute )
ASCII code 225ß ( Letter Eszett ; scharfes S or sharp S )
ASCII code 226Ô ( Letter O with circumflex accent or O-circumflex )
ASCII code 227Ò ( Capital letter O with grave accent )
ASCII code 228õ ( Lowercase letter o with tilde or o-tilde )
ASCII code 229õ ( Lowercase letter o with tilde or o-tilde )
ASCII code 230µ ( Lowercase letter Mu ; micro sign or micron )
ASCII code 231þ ( Lowercase letter Thorn )
ASCII code 232Þ ( Capital letter Thorn )
ASCII code 233Ú ( Capital letter U with acute accent or U-acute )
ASCII code 234Û ( Letter U with circumflex accent or U-circumflex )
ASCII code 235Ù ( Capital letter U with grave accent )
ASCII code 236ý ( Lowercase letter y with acute accent )
ASCII code 237Ý ( Capital letter Y with acute accent )
ASCII code 238¯ ( Macron symbol )
ASCII code 239´ ( Acute accent )
ASCII code 240≡ ( Congruence relation symbol )
ASCII code 241± ( Plus-minus sign )
ASCII code 242‗ ( underline or underscore )
ASCII code 243¾ ( three quarters, three-fourths )
ASCII code 244¶ ( Paragraph sign or pilcrow ; end paragraph mark )
ASCII code 245§ ( Section sign )
ASCII code 246÷ ( The division sign ; Obelus )
ASCII code 247 ¸ ( cedilla )
ASCII code 248° ( Degree symbol )
ASCII code 249¨ ( Diaresis )
ASCII code 250· ( Interpunct or space dot )
ASCII code 251¹ ( Superscript one, exponent 1, first power )
ASCII code 252³ ( Superscript three, exponent 3, cube, third power )
ASCII code 253² ( Superscript two, exponent 2, square, second power )
ASCII code 254■ ( black square )
ASCII code 255nbsp ( Non-breaking space or no-break space )

ASCII Extended Characters :


ASCII CODE NUMBERPRINTABLE CHARACTERS
ASCII code 32space ( Space )
ASCII code 33 ! ( Exclamation mark )
ASCII code 34" ( Double quotes ; Quotation mark ; speech marks )
ASCII code 35# ( Number sign )
ASCII code 36$ ( Dollar sign )
ASCII code 37% ( Percent sign )
ASCII code 38& ( Ampersand )
ASCII code 39' ( Single quote or Apostrophe )
ASCII code 40( ( round brackets or parentheses, opening round bracket )
ASCII code 41) ( parentheses or round brackets, closing parentheses )
ASCII code 42* ( Asterisk )
ASCII code 43+ ( Plus sign )
ASCII code 44, ( Comma )
ASCII code 45- ( Hyphen , minus sign )
ASCII code 46. ( Dot, full stop )
ASCII code 47/ ( Slash , forward slash , fraction bar , division slash )
ASCII code 480 ( number zero )
ASCII code 491 ( number one )
ASCII code 502 ( number two )
ASCII code 513 ( number three )
ASCII code 524 ( number four )
ASCII code 535 ( number five )
ASCII code 546 ( number six )
ASCII code 55 7 ( number seven )
ASCII code 568 ( number eight )
ASCII code 579 ( number nine )
ASCII code 58: ( Colon )
ASCII code 59; ( Semicolon )
ASCII code 60< ( Less-than sign )
ASCII code 61!ERROR! undefined variable 'equalssign'
ASCII code 62> ( Greater-than sign ; Inequality )
ASCII code 63? ( Question mark )
ASCII code 64@ ( At sign )
ASCII code 65A ( Capital letter A )
ASCII code 66B ( Capital letter B )
ASCII code 67C ( Capital letter C )
ASCII code 68D ( Capital letter D )
ASCII code 69E ( Capital letter E )
ASCII code 70E ( Capital letter E )
ASCII code 71G ( Capital letter G )
ASCII code 72H ( Capital letter H )
ASCII code 73I ( Capital letter I )
ASCII code 74J ( Capital letter J )
ASCII code 75K ( Capital letter K )
ASCII code 76L ( Capital letter L )
ASCII code 77M ( Capital letter M )
ASCII code 78N ( Capital letter N )
ASCII code 79O ( Capital letter O )
ASCII code 80P ( Capital letter P )
ASCII code 81Q ( Capital letter Q )
ASCII code 82R ( Capital letter R )
ASCII code 83S ( Capital letter S )
ASCII code 84T ( Capital letter T )
ASCII code 85U ( Capital letter U )
ASCII code 86V ( Capital letter V )
ASCII code 87W ( Capital letter W )
ASCII code 88X ( Capital letter X )
ASCII code 89Y ( Capital letter Y )
ASCII code 90Z ( Capital letter Z )
ASCII code 91[ ( square brackets or box brackets, opening bracket )
ASCII code 92\ ( Backslash , reverse slash )
ASCII code 93] ( box brackets or square brackets, closing bracket )
ASCII code 94^ ( Circumflex accent or Caret )
ASCII code 95_ ( underscore , understrike , underbar or low line )
ASCII code 96` ( Grave accent )
ASCII code 97a ( Lowercase letter a , minuscule a )
ASCII code 98b ( Lowercase letter b , minuscule b )
ASCII code 99c ( Lowercase letter c , minuscule c )
ASCII code 100d ( Lowercase letter d , minuscule d )
ASCII code 101e ( Lowercase letter e , minuscule e )
ASCII code 102f ( Lowercase letter f , minuscule f )
ASCII code 103g ( Lowercase letter g , minuscule g )
ASCII code 104h ( Lowercase letter h , minuscule h )
ASCII code 105i ( Lowercase letter i , minuscule i )
ASCII code 106j ( Lowercase letter j , minuscule j )
ASCII code 107k ( Lowercase letter k , minuscule k )
ASCII code 108l ( Lowercase letter l , minuscule l )
ASCII code 109m ( Lowercase letter m , minuscule m )
ASCII code 110n ( Lowercase letter n , minuscule n )
ASCII code 111o ( Lowercase letter o , minuscule o )
ASCII code 112p ( Lowercase letter p , minuscule p )
ASCII code 113q ( Lowercase letter q , minuscule q )
ASCII code 114r ( Lowercase letter r , minuscule r )
ASCII code 115s ( Lowercase letter s , minuscule s )
ASCII code 116t ( Lowercase letter t , minuscule t )
ASCII code 117u ( Lowercase letter u , minuscule u )
ASCII code 118v ( Lowercase letter v , minuscule v )
ASCII code 119w ( Lowercase letter w , minuscule w )
ASCII code 120x ( Lowercase letter x , minuscule x )
ASCII code 121y ( Lowercase letter y , minuscule y )
ASCII code 122z ( Lowercase letter z , minuscule z )
ASCII code 123{ ( braces or curly brackets, opening braces )
ASCII code 124| ( vertical-bar, vbar, vertical line or vertical slash )
ASCII code 125} ( curly brackets or braces, closing curly brackets )
ASCII code 126~ ( Tilde ; swung dash )
MICROSOFT WINDOWS TOOLS :


Microsoft - Analyzer - Analyze The Wireless Network Report
Microsoft - Analyzer - Remote Connectivity Analyzer
Microsoft - Anti Spam Message Headers
Microsoft - Attack Simulator In ATP (Online)
Microsoft - Azure - Join (Enroll) Apple Mac To Azure Active Directory (AD)
Microsoft - Office 365 - Licensing Diagnostic Tool
Microsoft - Office 365 - Uninstall Office From A PC Or Laptop
Microsoft - PowerShell - Installing Various Versions
Microsoft - Robocopy (Administration Commands)
Microsoft - Support - Main Page - Sign In To Deal With Warranty Issues
Microsoft - Support - Devices Page - Sign In To Deal With Warranty Issues
Microsoft - Support - Support And Recovery Assistantt Tool (SARA Tool)
Microsoft - Surface - Diagnostic Toolkit
Microsoft - Surface - Warranty Information
Microsoft - Windows 10 Store Apps Uninstaller (Power Shell / Win Forms)
Microsoft - Windows 10 Update Assistant


BENCHMARK - MAINTENANCE - TEST :


CPU-Z
Crystal Disk Info
DiskFresh
Hard Disk Sentinel - Windows
Hard Disk Sentinel - Linux Edition
HD Tune
Open Hardware Monitor
Prime95
Ryzen DRAM Calculator Tool (Helpful With XMP)
SMARTReporter Lite (For HDDs)
WD - 01 - Data Lifeguard Diagnostic For Windows
WD - 02 - Dashboard Utility Available


FREE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) SOFTWARE :


Accord.NET (.NET Audio And Image Processing Libraries)
Algolia - Search (Build AI Powered Search Engines)
Algolia - Recommend (Build AI Powered recommendation Engine)
Apache Mahout (Distributed Framework For Distributed Framework Data)
DeepFaceLab (Face Swapping In Videos And Images)
EbSynth (Convert Video Footage To Motion Paintings)
Faceswap (Face Swapping In Videos And Images)
GPT-Neo (Generates Texts From A Prompts)
IBM Watson (Answers Questions Asked In Natural Language)
OpenNN (Open Source Neural Networks Library)
Scikit Learn (Tools For Predictive Data Analysis)
Tay (Chat bot) (Decommissioned)
TensorFlow (Create Machine Learning Models)
Torch (Scientific Computing Framework For LuaJIT)
Yanderifier (For Making Deepfake Videos )
Zo (Chat bot) (Decommissioned)




MISCELLANEOUS NOTES :



Abourt shutdown, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
shutdown -a
Reset MFA for Microsoft Oiffcie 365, vist the site below:
https://aka.ms/MFASetup
Reset OneDrive sync, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
%localappdata%\Microsoft\OneDrive\onedrive.exe /reset
The location of the Templates folder for Microsoft Office Products:
C:\Users\%user%\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Templates
Outlook sfae mode, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
outlook.exe /safe
Outlook reset all views to default in 2013 / 2016, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
outlook.exe /cleanviews
Outlook reset the navigation pane, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
outlook.exe /resetnavpane
Outlook repair PST & OST on Windows 10 / 8 / 7 / XP, use the steps below:
1) Open Outlook
2) Open “Task Manager”
3) Select the “Processes” tab from the top of the bar on “Task Manager”
4) Right click on Outlook and choose "Open File Location"
5) Run "scanpst.exe"


Silent disk cleanup, right click "Start" menu, & click "Run", type the below:
c:\windows\SYSTEM32\cleanmgr.exe /dDrive
(NB: The placeholder "Drive", represents the drive letter of the hard disk to be cleaned.)
If you are unable to access a website for whatever reason
(Assuming no issues with your setup/network etc), you can email the
webmaster by sending your email to "webmaster@X.X.X.X". Where
"X.X.X.X" is the IP address of the web page.

To find the IP Address of the webpage, run CMD and type
"ping YYYYYYY.ZZZ" where "YYYYYYYYYY" is the name of the website
and "ZZZ" is the domain name extension such as .com /.uk / .org etc.
For example "matabaro.co.uk"
To Test The Audio Quality in Bluejeans:

If you are using a web browser type in the below:
https://bluejeans.com/111
If you are using the app, where it says "Enter Meeting ID"
Then type:
111
If you are using video conferencing equipment
Then type in:
111##

To Connect H.323 Or SIP Based Room Systems
To A
Bluejeans Meeting.
Dial the IP address "104.238.247.247" for H.323
or the FQDN "meet@bjn.vc" for SIP on your Room System
to get the welcome Interactive Voice Response (IVR).
VESA Mount:

The Flat Display Mounting Interface (FDMI), also known as
VESA Mounting Interface Standard (MIS) or colloquially as
VESA mount, is a family of standards defined by the
Video Electronics Standards Association for mounting flat panel monitors,
televisions, and other displays to stands or wall mounts. It is implemented
on most modern flat panel monitors and televisions.


SI PREFIEXS - METRIC :



Prefixes
PurposeLarger Quantities Or Whole Units
NameSymbolFactorName
yottaY1024Septillion
zettaZ1021Sextillion
exaE1018Quintillion
petaP1015Quadrillion
teraT1012Trillion
gigaG109Billion
megaM106Million
kilok103Thousand
hectoh102Hundred
dekada101Ten
100One
PurposeSmaller Quantities Or Sub Units
decid10-1Tenth
centic10-2Hundredth
millim10-3Thousandth
microμ10-6Millionth
nanon10-9Billionth
picop10-12Trillionth
femtof10-15Quadrillionth
attoa10-18Quintillionth
zeptoz10-21Sextillionth
yoctoy10-24Septillionth

SI PREFIEXS - BINARY:



IEC prefixRepresentations
Name / SymbolBase 2Base 1024ValueBase 10
kibi / Ki210102411024∼ 1.024×103
mebi / Mi220102421048576≈ 1.049×106
gibi / Gi230102431073741824≈ 1.074×109
tebi / Ti240102441.09951E+12≈ 1.100×1012
pebi / Pi250102451.1259E+15≈ 1.126×1015
exbi / Ei260102461.15292E+18≈ 1.153×1018
zebi / Zi270102471.18059E+21≈ 1.181×1021
yobi / Yi280102481.20893E+24≈ 1.209×1024


MAXIMUM FILE SIZE ON FORMATTED MEDIA :


Format§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = FAT / FAT8
BIT COUNT = 8 Bit
YEAR DEVELOPED = 1977
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
MAX FILE SIZE = ?
NAME = FAT12
BIT COUNT = 12 Bit
YEAR DEVELOPED = 1980
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
MAX FILE SIZE = 16 MB
*With a 4 KB clusters
MAX FILE SIZE = 32 MB*
*With an 8 KB clusters
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = FAT16
BIT COUNT = 16 Bit
YEAR DEVELOPED = 1984
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
MAX FILE SIZE = 2 GB*
*Without LFS
MAX FILE SIZE = 4 GB*
With LFS*

*Long File System
AKA FAT16B
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = FAT32
BIT COUNT = 32 Bit
YEAR DEVELOPED = 1996
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
MAX FILE SIZE = 4GB
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = exFAT
BIT COUNT = 64 Bit
YEAR DEVELOPED = 2006
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
MAX FILE SIZE = 16 EB
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = VFAT
BIT COUNT = ?
YEAR DEVELOPED = 1995
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
MAX FILE SIZE = 2TB*
*With a 512 KB sector size
MAX FILE SIZE = 16TB*
*With a 4 KB sector size

VFAT is an optional extension
for long file names, which can
work on top of any FAT file
system. Volumes using VFAT
long filenames can be read
also by operating systems
not supporting the
VFAT extension.
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = NTFS
BIT COUNT = 64 Bit
YEAR DEVELOPED = 1993
DEVELOPED BY = Microsoft
MAX FILE SIZE = 16 EB
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = HFS+
BIT COUNT = 32 Bit
YEAR DEVELOPED = 1998
DEVELOPED BY = Apple
MAX FILE SIZE = 2 GB*
Using HFS
MAX FILE SIZE = 8 EB*
Using HFS+
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§
NAME = APFS
BIT COUNT = ?
Year developed: 2017
DEVELOPED BY = Apple
MAX FILE SIZE = ?
Max File Size: 2 EB
§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§§

SD CARD MINI TABEL :


ABBREVIATION:MEANING:
SDSecure Digital Card
Storage Capacity = 0 - 2 GB
SDHCSecure Digital High Capacity Card
Storage Capacity = 4 GB - 32 GB
SDXCSecure Digital Extended Capacity Card
Storage Capacity = 32 GB - 2 TB
SDUCSecure Digital Ultra Capacity Card
Storage Capacity = 2 TB - 128 TB
CARD TYPE:DEVICE COMPATIBILITY:
SD
SDHC
SDXC
SD
SD SDHC
SD SDHC SDXC
Megabits per second 1Mb/s = 0.125 MB/s Megabytes per second
Megabits per second 8 Mb/s = 1 MB/s Megabytes per second
Megabits per second 90 Mb/s = 11.25 MB/sMegabytes per second

For greater information on SD Cards see my page
What Do The Markings On An SD Card Mean


COMMON COLOUR CODES :

DecimalBinary (RGB)Hexadecimal
Black0, 0, 0#000000
Blue0, 0, 255#0000FF
Cyan0, 255, 255#00FFFF
Green0, 255, 0#00FF00
Magenta255, 0, 255#FF00FF
Red255, 0, 0#FF0000
White255, 255, 255#FFFFFF
Yellow255, 255, 0#FFFF00


WINDOWS APP SHORTCUTS :


CommandAction
appwiz.cplAdd Remove Programs
dsa.mscActive Directory
gpedit.cplGroup policy editor
inetcpl.cplOpen MS IE Internet Control Panel file
lusrmgr.mscLocal Users and Groups
msconfigWindows Configuration Manager
mstcsRemote Desktop Connection
ncpa.cplChange Adaptor Settings
services.mscServices snap-in (Foe MMC)
sysdm.cplSystem Properties
mmcMicrosoft Management Console



CPU INFORMATION :


CPUINFO
Chip SetA set of electronic components in an integrated circuit
known as a "Data Flow Management System" that
manages the data flow between the processor,
memory and peripherals
BIOSBasic
Input
Output
System


BIOS is the program (in the form of firmware) a
computer's microprocessor uses to start the computer
system after it is powered on. Also known as the System
BIOS, ROM BIOS, BIOS ROM or PC BIOS), the BIOS
firmware is used to perform hardware initialization
during the booting process (power-on startup), and to
provide runtime services for operating systems and
programs. The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on a
personal computer's system board, and it is the first
software to run when powered on. The name originates
from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M
operating system in 1975. The BIOS originally
proprietary to the IBM PC has been reverse engineered
by some companies (such as Phoenix Technologies)
looking to create compatible systems. The interface of
that original system serves as a de facto standard.
CMOSEComplementary
Metal
Oxide
Semiconductor
Field
Effect
Transistor


To understand the CMOS, we must first understand the
BIOS. The BIOS is the program that starts a computer
up and the CMOS is where the BIOS stores the date,
time, and system configuration details it needs to start
the computer. The CMOS is a type of memory
technology, but most people use the term to refer to
the chip that stores variable data for startup. A CMOS
consists of a pair of semiconductors connected to a
common secondary voltage such that they operate in
an opposite (complimentary) fashion. Thus, when one
transistor is turned on, the other is turned off,
and vice versa.

Some of the advantages of CMOS:

High noise immunity.
Reduced complexity of the circuit.
Very low static power consumption.
A higher density of logic functions on a chip.
COS-MOSComplementary
Symmetry
Metal
Oxide
Semiconductor


See CMOS.
NMOSN-type
Metal
Oxide
Semiconductor
Logic


N-type (-) MOSFETs are used to implement logic gates
and other digital circuits. These nMOS transistors
operate by creating an inversion layer in a p-type
transistor body. This inversion layer, called the
n-channel, can conduct electrons between n-type
"source" and "drain" terminals. The n-channel is
created by applying voltage to the third terminal,
called the gate. Like other MOSFETs, nMOS
transistors have four modes of operation: cut-off
(or subthreshold), triode, saturation
(sometimes called active), and velocity saturation.
Numeric CoprocessorThe math coprocessor was an optional add-on for
the Intel 8086, 80386 and 80486 processors that
allowed computers to perform faster mathematical
calculations, increasing its overall performance.
IO ProcessorInput
Output
Processor
NorthbridgeA northbridge or host bridge is one of the two chips
in the core logic chipset architecture on a PC
motherboard, the other being the southbridge.
Unlike the southbridge, the northbridge is connected
directly to the CPU via the front side bus and is thus
responsible for tasks that require the highest performance
SouthbridgeThe southbridge is one of the two chips in the core
logic chipset on a personal computer motherboard,
the other being the northbridge. The southbridge
typically implements the slower capabilities of the
motherboard in a northbridge / southbridge chipset
computer architecture

TRANSISTORS :


Abbreviation Meaning
BJTBipolar
Junction
Transistor
VbbBase Supply Voltage
VeeEmitter Supply Voltage
VccCollector Supply Voltage

AKA

Voltage Common Collector
MOSFETMetal
Oxide
Semiconductor
Field
Effect
Transistor
VddDrain Supply Voltage
VssSource Supply Voltage
VggFollowing the above convention, it should be "Gate".
However, as "Vgg" does not exist, instead we use
"Ground" (Gnd), "Common" or "0" (Zero) voltes.
FinFETFin
Field
Effect
Transistor
JFETJunction
Gate
Field
Effect
Transistor
MuGFETMulti
Gate
Field
Effect
Transistor
TFTThin
Film
Transistor


JFET To BJTComparison
JFETBJP
Gate, ( G )Base, ( B )
Drain, ( D )Collector, ( C )
Source, ( S )Emitter, ( E )
Gate Supply, ( VG )Base Supply, ( VB )
Drain Supply, ( VDD )Collector Supply, ( VCC )
Drain Current, ( ID )Collector Current, ( IC )


INTEGRATED CIRCUITS POWER SUPPLY PIN :



 BJTFET
Positive Supply VoltageVcc / Vbb V+Vdd Vs+
Negative Supply VoltageVee V-Vss Vs-
GroundGnd (0)Gnd (0)


ELECTRONICS MISCELLANEOUS NOTES :


AbbreviationMEANING
ICIntegrated Circuit / Monolithic Integrated Circuit:

An IC or a microchip is a set of electronic circuits
on one small flat piece (or "chip") of
semiconductor material, usually silicon.
Large numbers of tiny MOSFETs (See MOSFET)
integrate into a small chip. This results in circuits
that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and
less expensive than those constructed of discrete
electronic components. The IC's mass production
capability, reliability, and building block approach
to integrated circuit design has ensured the rapid
adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs
using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in
virtually all electronic equipment and have
revolutionized the world of electronics.
Computers, mobile phones, and other digital
home appliances are now inextricable parts of the
structure of modern societies, made possible by
the small size and low cost of ICs such as modern
computer processors and microcontrollers.
I²C / I2C / IICInter-Integrated Circuit

It is pronounced as "eye-squared-C"

I²C is a synchronous, multi-master, multi-slave,
packet switched, single-ended, serial
communication bus invented in 1982 by Philips
Semiconductors. It is widely used for attaching
lower speed peripheral ICs to processors and
microcontrollers in short distance, intra-board
communication.
ASICApplication Specific Integrated Circuit

ASIC is an integrated circuit (IC) chip customized
for a particular use, rather than intended for
general purpose use. For example, a chip
designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a
high efficiency bitcoin miner is an ASIC.
Application specific standard product (ASSP)
chips are intermediate between ASICs and
industry standard integrated circuits like the
7400 series or the 4000 series.
ASIC chips are typically fabricated using MOS
technology (See MOS), as MOS integrated circuit.
TTLTransistor Transistor Logic:

Transistor to transistor logic is a logic
family built from bipolar junction
transistors. Its name signifies that
transistors perform both the logic
function and the amplifying function,
as opposed to resistor transistor
logic or diode transistor logic.
RTLResistor Transistor Logic:

Resistor transistor logic is a class of digital
circuits built using resistors as the input
network and bipolar junction transistors
(BJTs) as switching devices. RTL is the
earliest class of transistorized digital logic
circuit used; other classes include diode
transistor logic (DTL) and transistor
transistor logic (TTL). RTL circuits were first
constructed with discrete components, but
in 1961 it became the first digital logic family
to be produced as a monolithic integrated
circuit. RTL integrated circuits were used in
the Apollo Guidance Computer, whose
design was begun in 1961 and which
first flew in 1966
TRLTransistor Resistor Logic:

See RTL
DTLDiode Transistor Logic :

Diode transistor logic (DTL) is a class of digital
circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor
transistor logic. It is called so because the logic
gating function (e.g., AND) is performed by a
diode network and the amplifying function is
performed by a transistor
(in contrast with RTL and TTL).
Flip-flopFlip-Flop

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that
has two stable states and can be used to store
state information, a bistable multivibrator.
The circuit can be made to change state by
signals applied to one or more control inputs
and will have one or two outputs. It is the basic
storage element in sequential logic. Flip-flops
and latches are fundamental building blocks
of digital electronics systems used in computers,
communications, and many other types of systems.
UARTUniversal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

is a computer hardware device for asynchronous
serial communication in which the data format
and transmission speeds are configurable.
It sends data bits one by one, from the least
significant to the most significant, framed by start
and stop bits so that precise timing is handled by
the communication channel. The electric signaling
levels are handled by a driver circuit external to
the UART. Two common signal levels are RS-232,
a 12 volt system, and RS-485, a 5-volt system.
It was one of the earliest computer communication
devices, used to attach teletypewriters for an
operator console. It was also an early hardware
system for the Internet.
DSPDigital Signal Processing

Digital signal processing is the use of digital
processing, such as by computers or more
specialized digital signal processors, to
perform a wide variety of signal
processing operations.
VppPeak To Peak Voltage:

The peak value is the highest voltage that
the waveform will ever reach, like the peak
is the highest point on a mountain.
RMSRoot Mean Square:

The RMS value, is the effective value of the
total waveform. It is equal to the level of the
DC signal that would provide the same average
power as the periodic signal.
ESDElectrostatic Discharge:

A sudden flow of electricity between two
electrically charged objects, an ESD occurs
when differently charged objects are brought
close together or when the dielectric between
them breaks down, often creating a visible spark.
VDP / VDC (Usually a Chip)Video Display Processor / Controller:

A video display controller or VDC AKA
"Display Engine" or "Display Interface", is an
integrated circuit that is the main component
in a video signal generator. A device responsible
for the production of TV video signals or in a
computer or a computer games system. Some
VDCs also generate an audio signal, but that is not
their main function. VDCs were used in the home
computers of the 1980s and also in some early
video picture systems.


Within the MSX users community, the VDP means
Video Display Processor, it's the term used for the
video chip built into the MSX system. The below
video chips are used on the MSX system:

Texas Instruments TMS9918 family of VDP chips
Toshiba T6950
Yamaha YM2220
Yamaha V9938
Yamaha V9958
Yamaha V9990

Generally, the VDP is a separate chip, but a few
MSX1 machines have the Toshiba T6950
integrated in the Toshiba T7937 MSX-Engine.

Besides these VDP's, there is also a
Video Display Controller (VDC), the Yamaha
99C37-F used only in the NTT Captain
Multi Station computer
BGA (Chip)Ball Grid Array / Ball Gate Array:

A type of surface mounted packaging (SMD)
used for integrated circuits.BGAs are used to
permanently mount devices such as
microprocessors. A BGA can provide more
interconnection pins than a standard dual in line
(DIP)or flat package. The whole bottom surface of
the device can be used, instead of just the
perimeter. The traces connecting the package's
leads to the wires or balls, which connect the die
to the package are also shorter than with a
perimeter only type, leading to better
performance at high speeds.
FPGA (Chip)Field Programmable Gate Array:

FPGA is an integrated circuit (IC) designed to be
configured by a customer or a designer after
manufacturing, hence the term field
programmable. FPGA configuration is generally
specified using a hardware description language
(HDL), similar to that used for an application
specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Circuit diagrams
were previously used to specify the configuration,
but this is increasingly rare due to the advent of
electronic design automation tools.
FPGAs contain an array of programmable logic
blocks, and a hierarchy of reconfigurable
interconnects allowing blocks to be wired together.
Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex
combinational functions, or act as simple logic gates
like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, logic blocks also
include memory elements, which may be simple
flip flops or more complete blocks of memory.
Many FPGAs can be reprogrammed to implement
different logic functions, allowing flexible
reconfigurable computing as performed in computer
software. FPGAs have a remarkable role in
embedded system development due to their
capability to start system software (SW) development
simultaneously with hardware (HW), enable system
performance simulations at a very early phase of the
development, and allow various system partitioning
(SW and HW) trials and iterations before final freezing
of the system architecture. The FPGA industry
sprouted from programmable read only memory
(PROM) and programmable logic devices (PLDs).
PROMs and PLDs both had the option of being
programmed in batches in a factory or in the field
(field programmable). However, programmable logic
was hard-wired between
logic gates
PLDProgrammable Logic Device

A programmable logic device (PLD) is an
electronic component used to build reconfigurable
digital circuits. Unlike integrated circuits (IC) which
consist of logic gates and have a fixed function,
a PLD has an undefined function at the time of
manufacture. Before the PLD can be used in a circuit
it must be programmed (reconfigured) by using a
specialized program.

GAL = Generic Array Logic
PAL = Programmable Array Logic
PLA = Programmable Logic Array
FPGA = Field Programmable Gate Array
CPLDs = Complex Programmable Logic Device
EPLDs = Erasable Programmable Logic Device
SID (Chip)Sound Interface Device:

The SID is a sound chip used primarily in the
VC 10, C64 and C128 and now a number of
sound related project kits etc. The chip
combines analogue and digital circuitry, that
cannot be emulated with 100% fidelity even
today. The intention of its designer (Bob Yannes)
was to implement a real subtractive synthesis chip,
totally different from all other home computers
sound devices of its time. The SID can be
programmed in BASIC or machine language,
using a machine language monitor or an
assembler package e.g. Merlin or the
Commodore Assembler, etc.
RTL (RTL SDR) (Chip set)Realtek L2832U:

The Realtek RTL2832U chipset was a popular
choice for digital video broadcast (DVB-T)
receivers, whose original purpose was to
receive video. It was discovered that these
could be hacked and turned into wideband
SDR receivers.
SDR (RTL SDR)Software Defined Radio:

A radio communication system where
components that have been traditionally
implemented in hardware
(e.g. mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators /
demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead
implemented by means of software on a
computer, tablet, mobile phone or
embedded system.
SWRStanding Wave Ratio:

In the field of radio engineering and
telecommunications, SWR is a measure of
impedance matching of loads to the
characteristic impedance of a transmission
line or waveguide.
SMA ConnectorSubMiniature Version A

SMA connectors are semi precision coaxial
RF connectors that were developed in the
1960s as a minimal connector interface for
coaxial cable with a screw type couplin
mechanism. The connector has a 50 Ω
impedance. SMA was originally designed for
use from DC (0 Hz) to 12 GHz, however this
has been extended over time and variants
are available to 18 GHz and 26.5 GHz.
There are also mechanically compatible
connectors such as the K-connector which
operate up to 40 GHz. The SMA connector
is most commonly used in microwave
systems, hand held radio and mobile
telephone antennas and, more recently,
with WiFi antenna systems and USB software
defined radio dongles. It is also commonly
used in radio astronomy, particularly at
higher frequencies (5 GHz+).
BFOBeat Frequency Oscillator

In a radio receiver a BFO AKA a
beat frequency oscillator or BFO is a
dedicated oscillator used to create an audio
frequency signal from Morse code
radiotelegraphy (CW) transmissions to make
them audible. The signal from the BFO is
mixed with the received signal to create a
heterodyne or beat frequency which is heard
as a tone in the speaker. BFOs are also used
to demodulate single-sideband (SSB) signals,
making them intelligible, by essentially
restoring the carrier that was suppressed at
the transmitter. BFOs are sometimes included
in communications receivers designed for
short wave listeners; they are almost always
found in communication receivers for
amateur radio, which often receive CW
and SSB signals.
Heterodynehet·​ero·​dyne

Etymology:
heter- + -dyne,
A modification of Greek dynamis power

A heterodyne is a signal frequency that is
created by combining or mixing two other
frequencies using a signal processing
technique called heterodyning.
Heterodyning is used to shift one frequency
range into another, new frequency range,
and is also involved in the processes of
modulation and demodulation.
The two input frequencies are combined
in a nonlinear signal processing device
such as a vacuum tube, transistor, or
diode, usually called a mixer
SuperhetSuperheterodyne Receiver

A superheterodyne receiver often
shortened to superhet, is a type of radio
receiver that uses frequency mixing to
convert a received signal to a fixed
intermediate frequency (IF) which can be
more conveniently processed than the
original carrier frequency. Virtually all
modern radio receivers use the
superheterodyne principle.
RDFRadio Direction Finding

RDF is the measurement of the direction from
which a received signal was transmitted.
This can refer to radio or other forms of
wireless communication, including radar signals
detection and monitoring (ELINT/ESM).
By combining the direction information from two
or more suitably spaced receivers
(or a single mobile receiver), the source of a
transmission may be located via triangulation.
Radio direction finding is used in the navigation
of ships and aircraft, to locate emergency
transmitters for search and rescue, for tracking
wildlife, and to locate illegal or interfering
transmitters.
RADAFRadio Detection And Ranging

Radar is a detection system that uses radio
waves to determine the distance (range),
angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used
to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided
missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations,
and terrain. A radar system consists of a
transmitter producing electromagnetic waves
in the radio or microwaves domain,
a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna
(often the same antenna is used for
transmitting and receiving) and a receiver and
processor to determine the properties of the
object(s). Radio waves (pulsed or continuous)
from the transmitter reflect off the object and
return to the receiver, giving information about
the object's location and speed.
LIDA Light Detection And Ranging
- AKA -
Laser Imaging Detection And Ranging


Lidar is a method for determining ranges
(variable distance) by targeting an object with a
laser and measuring the time for the reflected
light to return to the receiver. Lidar can also be
used to make digital 3-D representations of
areas on the earth's surface and ocean floor,
due to differences in laser return times, and by
varying laser wavelengths. It has terrestrial,
airborne, and mobile applications. Lidar is an
acronym of "light detection and ranging" or
"laser imaging, detection, and ranging", lidar is
often called 3D laser scanning, a special
combination of a 3D scanning and laser
scanning. Lidar is commonly used to make high
resolution maps, with applications in surveying,
geodesy, geomatics, archaeology, geography,
geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry,
atmospheric physics, laser guidance, airborne
laser swath mapping (ALSM), and laser altimetry.
The technology is also used in control and
navigation for some autonomous cars and for
he helicopter Ingenuity on its record setting flights
over the terrain of Mars.
FASORFrequency Addition Source Of Optical Radiation

The acronym FASOR is used for a certain type of
guide star laser deployed at US Air Force
Research Laboratory facilities SOR and AMOS.
The laser light is produced in a sum frequency
generation process from two solid state laser
sources that operate at different wavelengths.
The frequencies of the sources add directly to
a summed frequency. Thus, if the source
wavelengths are λ1 and λ2, the resulting
wavelength is λ= (1/λ1 + 1/λ2) -1.
Application, the FASOR is used for laser guide
star experiments. It is tuned to the D2a
hyperfine component of the sodium D line and
used to excite sodium atoms in the mesospheric
upper atmosphere. The FASOR consists of two
single frequency injection locked Nd:YAG lasers
close to 1064 and 1319 nm that are both
resonant in a cavity containing a lithium triborate
(LBO) crystal, which sums the frequencies
yielding 589.159 nm light.
IFIntermediate Frequency

The use of IF coils and interstage coupling
transformers were a major feature of vacuum
tube based receivers. Both served the dual
purpose of impedance matching and frequency
selectivity. IF amplifier transformers are simply
tunable inductors, usually with an integral fixed
capacitor, and are typically used inside cheaper
transistor radios. Mostly they are used as
"synchronously tuned filters" because each stage
is coupled by an active device.
WEEEWaste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive
(WEEE Directive) is the European Community
Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and
electronic equipment (WEEE) which, together
with the RoHS Directive 2011/65/EU (See below),
became European Law in February 2003.
The WEEE Directive set collection, recycling and
recovery targets for all types of electrical goods,
with a minimum rate of 4 kilograms (9 lb) per
head of population per annum recovered for
recycling by 2009. The RoHS Directive set
restrictions upon European manufacturers as
to the material content of new electronic
equipment placed on the market.
ROHSRestriction Of Hazardous Substances Directive

Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive
2002/95/EC (RoHS 1), short for Directive on
the restriction of the use of certain hazardous
substances in electrical and electronic
equipment was adopted in February 2003 by
the European Union. The RoHS 1 directive
took effect on 1 July 2006, and is required to
be enforced and became law in each
member state. This directive restricts
(with exceptions) the use of hazardous
materials in the manufacture of various
types of electronic and electrical equipment.
It is closely linked with the Waste Electrical
and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE)
2002/96/EC (now superseded) which sets
collection, recycling and recovery targets for
electrical goods and is part of a legislative
initiative to solve the problem of huge
amounts of toxic electronic waste.
The RoHS Directive set restrictions upon
European manufacturers as to the
material content of new electronic
equipment placed on the market.


DECIBEL :


dBPower RatioAmplitude Ratio
10010000000000100000
90100000000031623
8010000000010000
70100000003162
6010000001000
50100000316.2
4010000100
30100031.62
2010010
10103.162
63.981 ≈ 41.995 ≈ 2
31.995 ≈ 21.413 ≈ √2
11.2591.122
011
-10.7940.891
-30.501 ≈ ​1⁄20.708 ≈ √​1⁄2
-60.251 ≈ ​1⁄40.501 ≈ ​1⁄2
-100.10.3162
-200.010.1
-300.0010.03162
-400.00010.01
-500.000010.003162
-600.0000010.001
-700.00000010.0003162
-800.000000010.0001
-900.0000000010.00003162
-1000.00000000010.00001

An example scale showing power ratios x, amplitude ratios √x, and dB
equivalents 10 log10 x. The decibel (symbol: dB) is a relative unit of
measurement corresponding to one tenth of a bel (B).


dBm To Watt, Volt RMS :


dBmWattVolt (50Ω)Volt (75Ω)
-1400.01 fW22.361 nV27.386 nV
-1390.013 fW25.089 nV30.728 nV
-1380.016 fW28.15 nV34.477 nV
-1370.02 fW31.585 nV38.684 nV
-1360.025 fW35.439 nV43.404 nV
-1350.032 fW39.764 nV48.7 nV
-1340.04 fW44.615 nV54.643 nV
-1330.05 fW50.059 nV61.31 nV
-1320.063 fW56.167 nV68.791 nV
-1310.079 fW63.021 nV77.185 nV
-1300.1 fW70.711 nV86.603 nV
-1290.126 fW79.339 nV97.17 nV
-1280.158 fW89.019 nV109.026 nV
-1270.2 fW99.881 nV122.329 nV
-1260.251 fW112.069 nV137.256 nV
-1250.316 fW125.743 nV154.004 nV
-1240.398 fW141.089 nV172.795 nV
-1230.501 fW158.301 nV193.879 nV
-1220.631 fW177.617 nV217.536 nV
-1210.794 fW199.29 nV244.079 nV
-1201 fW223.607 nV273.861 nV
-1191.259 fW250.891 nV307.277 nV
-1181.585 fW281.504 nV344.771 nV
-1171.995 fW315.853 nV386.839 nV
-1162.512 fW354.393 nV434.041 nV
-1153.162 fW397.635 nV487.002 nV
-1143.981 fW446.154 nV546.425 nV
-1135.012 fW500.593 nV613.099 nV
-1126.31 fW561.675 nV687.908 nV
-1117.943 fW630.21 nV771.846 nV
-11010 fW707.107 nV866.025 nV
-10912.589 fW793.387 nV971.696 nV
-10815.849 fW890.195 nV1.09 ?V
-10719.953 fW998.815 nV1.223 ?V
-10625.119 fW1.121 ?V1.373 ?V
-10531.623 fW1.257 ?V1.54 ?V
-10439.811 fW1.411 ?V1.728 ?V
-10350.119 fW1.583 ?V1.939 ?V
-10263.096 fW1.776 ?V2.175 ?V
-10179.433 fW1.993 ?V2.441 ?V
-100100 fW2.236 ?V2.739 ?V
-99125.893 fW2.509 ?V3.073 ?V
-98158.489 fW2.815 ?V3.448 ?V
-97199.526 fW3.159 ?V3.868 ?V
-96251.189 fW3.544 ?V4.34 ?V
-95316.228 fW3.976 ?V4.87 ?V
-94398.107 fW4.462 ?V5.464 ?V
-93501.187 fW5.006 ?V6.131 ?V
-92630.957 fW5.617 ?V6.879 ?V
-91794.328 fW6.302 ?V7.718 ?V
-901 pW7.071 ?V8.66 ?V
-891.259 pW7.934 ?V9.717 ?V
-881.585 pW8.902 ?V10.903 ?V
-871.995 pW9.988 ?V12.233 ?V
-862.512 pW11.207 ?V13.726 ?V
-853.162 pW12.574 ?V15.4 ?V
-843.981 pW14.109 ?V17.279 ?V
-835.012 pW15.83 ?V19.388 ?V
-826.31 pW17.762 ?V21.754 ?V
-817.943 pW19.929 ?V24.408 ?V
-8010 pW22.361 ?V27.386 ?V
-7912.589 pW25.089 ?V30.728 ?V
-7815.849 pW28.15 ?V34.477 ?V
-7719.953 pW31.585 ?V38.684 ?V
-7625.119 pW35.439 ?V43.404 ?V
-7531.623 pW39.764 ?V48.7 ?V
-7439.811pW44.615 ?V54.643 ?V
-7350.119 pW50.059 ?V61.31 ?V
-7263.096 pW56.167 ?V68.791 ?V
-7179.433 pW63.021 ?V77.185 ?V
-70100 pW70.711 ?V86.603 ?V
-69125.893 pW79.339 ?V97.17 ?V
-68158.489 pW89.019 ?V109.026 ?V
-67199.526 pW99.881 ?V122.329 ?V
-66251.189 fW112.069 ?V137.256 ?V
-65316.228 fW125.743 ?V154.004 ?V
-64398.107 fW141.086 ?V172.795 ?V
-63501.187 pW158.301 ?V193.879 ?V
-62630.957 pW177.617 ?V217.536 ?V
-61794.328 pW199.29 ?V244.079 ?V
-601 nW223.607 ?V273.861 ?V
-591.259 nW250.891 ?V307.277 ?V
-581.585 nW281.504 ?V344.771 ?V
-571.995 nW315.853 ?V386.839 ?V
-5623512 nW354.393 ?V434.041 ?V
-553.162 nW397.635 ?V487.002 ?V
-543.981nW446.154 ?V546.425 ?V
-535.012 nW500.593 ?V613.099 ?V
-526.31 nW561.675 ?V687.908 ?V
-517.943 nW630.21 ?V771.846 ?V
-5010 nW707.107 ?V866.025 ?V
-4912.589 nW793.387 ?V971.696 ?V
-4815.849 nW890.195 ?V1.09 mV
-4719.953 nW998.815 ?V1.223 mV
-4625.119 nW1.121 mV1.373 mV
-4531.623 W1.257 mV1.54 mV
-4439.811 nW1.411 mV1.728 mV
-4350.119 nW1.583 mV1.939 mV
-4263.096 nW1.776 mV2.175 mV
-4179.433 nW1.993 mV2.441 mV
-40100 nW2.236 mV2.739 mV
-39125.893 nW2.509 mV3.073 mV
-38158.489 nW2.815 mV3.448 mV
-37199.526 nW3.159 mV3.868 mV
-36251.189 nW3.544 mV4.34 mV
-35316.228 nW3.976 mV4.87 mV
-34398.107 nW4.462 mV5.464 mV
-33501.187 nW5.006 mV6.131 mV
-32630.957 nW5.617 mV6.879 mV
-31794.328 nW6.302 mV7.718 mV
-301 ?W7.071 mV8.66 mV
-291.259 ?W7.934 mV9.717 mV
-281.585 ?W8.902 mV10.903 mV
-271.995 ?W9.988 mV12.233 mV
-262.512 ?W11.207 mV13.726 mV
-253.162 ?W12.574 mV15.4 mV
-243.981 ?W14.109 mV17.279 mV
-235.012 ?W15.83 mV19.388 mV
-226.31 ?W17.762 mV21.754 mV
-217.943 ?W19.929 mV24.408 mV
-2010 ?W22.361 mV27.386 mV
-1912.589 ?W25.089 mV30.728 mV
-1815.849 ?W28.15 mV34.477 mV
-1719.953 ?W31.585 mV38.684 mV
-1625.119 ?W35.439 mV43.404 mV
-1531.623 ?W39.764 mV48.7 mV
-1439.811 ?W44.615 mV54.643 mV
-1350.119 ?W50.059 mV61.31 mV
-1263.096 ?W56.167 mV68.791 mV
-1179.433 ?W63.021 mV77.185 mV
-10100 ?W70.711 mV86.603 mV
-9125.893 ?W79.339 mV97.17 mV
-8158.489 ?W89.019 mV109.026 mV
-7199.526 ?W99.881 mV122.329 mV
-6251.189 ?W112.069 mV137.256 mV
-5316.228 ?W125.743 mV154.004 mV
-4398.107 ?W141.086 mV172.795 mV
-3501.187 ?W158.301 mV193.879 mV
-2630.957 ?W177.617 mV217.536 mV
-1794.328 ?W199.29 mV244.079 mV
01 mW223.607 mV273.861 mV
11.259 mW250.891 mV307.277 mV
21.585 mW281.504 mV344.771 mV
31.995 W315.853 mV386.839 mV
42.512 mW354.393 mV434.041 mV
53.162 mW397.635 mV487.002 mV
63.981 mW446.154 mV0.546 V
75.012 mW0.501 V0.613 V
86.31 mW0.562 V0.688 V
97.943 mW0.63 V0.772 V
1010 mW0.707 V0.866 V
1112.589 mW0.793 V0.972 V
1215.849 mW0.89 V1.09 V
1319.953 mW0.999 V1.223 V
1425.119 mW1.121 V1.373 V
1531.623 mW1.257 V1.54 V
1639.811 mW1.411 V1.728 V
1750.119 mW1.583 V1.939 V
1863.096 mW1.776 V2.175 V
1979.433 mW1.993 V2.441 V
20100 mW2.236 V2.793 V
21125.893 mW2.509 V3.073 V
22158.489 mW2.815 V3.448 V
23199.526 mW3.159 V3.868 V
24251.189 mW3.544 V4.34 V
25316.228 mW3.976 V4.87 V
26398.107 mW4.462 V5.464 V
270.501 W5.006 V6.131 V
280.631 W5.617 V6.879 V
290.794 W6.302 V7.718 V
301 W7.071 V8.66 V
311.259 W7.934 V9.717 V
321.585 W8.902 V10.903 V
331.995 W9.988 V12.233 V
342.512 W11.207 V13.726 V
353.162 W12.574 V15.4 V
363.981 W14.109 V17.279 V
375.012 W15.83 V19.388 V
386.31 W17.762 V21.754 V
397.943 W19.929 V24.408 V
4010 W22.361 V27.386 V
4112.589 W25.089 V30.728 V
4215.849 W28.15 V34.477 V
4319.953 W31.585 V38.684 V
4425.119 W35.439 V43.404 V
4531.623 W39.764 V48.7 V
4639.811 W44.615 V54.643 V
4750.119 W50.059 V61.31 V
4863.096 W56.167 V68.791 V
4979.433 W63.021 V77.185 V
50100 W70.711 V86.603 V
51125.893 W79.339 V97.17 V
52158.489 W89.019 V109.026 V
53199.526 W99.881 V122.329 V
54251.189 W112.069 V137.256 V
55316.228 W125.743 V154.004 V
56398.107 W141.086 V172.795 V
57501.187 W158.301 V193.879 V
58630.957 W177.617 V217.536 V
59794.328 W199.29 V244.079 V
601 kW223.607 V273.861 V
611.259 kW250.891 V307.277 V
621.585 kW281.504 V344.771 V
631.995 kW315.853 V386.839 V
642.512 kW354.393 V434.041 V
653.162 kW397.635 V487.002 V
663.981 kW446.154 V546.425 V
675.012 kW500.593 V613.099 V
686.31 kW561.675 V687.908 V
697.943 kW630.21 V0.772 kV
7010 kW0.707 kV0.866 kV
7112.589 kW0.793 kV0.972 V
7215.849 kW0.89 kV1.09 kV
7319.953 kW0.999 kV1.223 kV
7425.119 kW1.121 kV1.373 kV
7531.623 kW1.257 kV1.54 kV
7639.811 kW1.411 kV1.728 kV
7750.119 kW1.583 kV1.939 kV
7863.096 kW1.776 kV2.175 kV
7979.433 kW1.993 kV2.441 kV
80100 kW2.236 kV2.739 kV
81125.893 kW2.509 kV3.073 kV
82158.489 kW2.815 kV3.448 kV
83199.526 kW3.159 kV3.868 kV
84251.189 kW3.544 kV4.34 kV
85316.228 kW3.976 kV4.87 kV
86398.107 kW4.462 kV5.464 kV
87501.187 kW5.006 kV6.131 kV
88630.957 kW5.617 kV6.879 kV
89794.328 kW6.302 kV7.718 kV
901 MW7.071 kV8.66 kV
911.529 MW7.934 kV9.717 kV
921.585 MW8.902 kV10.903 kV
931.995 MW9.988 kV12.233 kV
942.512 MW11.207 kV13.726 kV
953.162 MW12.574 kV15.4 kV
963.981 W14.109 kV17.279 kV
975.012 MW15.83 kV19.388 kV
986.31 MW17.762 kV21.754 kV
997.943 MW19.929 kV24.408 kV
10010 MW22.361 kV27.386 kV
10112.589 MW25.089 kV30.728 kV
10215.849 MW28.15 kV34.477 kV
10319.953 MW31.585 kV38.684 kV
10425.119 MW35.439 kV43.404 kV
10531.623 MW39.764 kV48.7 kV
10639.811 MW44.615 kV54.643 kV
10750.119 MW50.059 kV61.31 kV
10863.096 MW56.167 kV68.791 kV
10979.433 MW63.021 kV77.185 kV
110100 MW70.711 kV86.603 kV
111125.893 MW79.339 kV97.17 kV
112158.489 MW89.019 V109.026 kV
113199.526 MW99.881 kV122.329 kV
114251.189 MW112.069 kV137.256 kV
115316.228 MW125.743 kV154.004 kV
116398.107 MW141.086 kV172.795 kV
117501.187 MW158.301 kV193.879 kV
118630.957 MW177.617 kV217.536 kV
119794.328 MW199.29 kV244.079 kV
1201000 MW223.607 kV273.861 kV



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